Have you ever wondered!
How does our body manage to distribute all the nutrients to each and every cell of it?
We all know that our cells produce lots of waste everyday. How is this waste collected from different body parts and thrown out of the body?
Answer to the question is the presence of a circulatory system. It is the system that contains the heart, lymph, blood and the blood vessels which helps in the transport of nutrients and removal of waste materials.
Simple organisms like sponges and coelenterates circulate water from their surroundings through their body cavities to facilitate the cells to exchange nutrients with waste substances.
In the case of complex organisms they use special fluids present in their bodies normally to transport nutrients and waste materials. Blood is the common type of body fluid in many organisms. Lymph is another fluid which helps in the transport of substances in the body.
Table of Contents
Blood is the fluid connective tissue of our body, which can be considered as an ocean in which, like solid balls, cells are floating. It is responsible for the transport of oxygen and nutrients throughout the body. It also carries carbon dioxide and waste products for removal. Blood is a thick and homogeneous liquid in which blood cells are suspended.
Blood is an opaque and mobile fluid connective tissue. It is salty in taste and bright red in colour when oxygenated and purple in colour when deoxygenated.
An average person has about 4 - 6 litres of blood which forms about 6 -10% of a body’s weight. Blood consists of a watery, straw-coloured fluid called ‘plasma’ which contains all the formed elements (blood cells) floating in it. The plasma and formed elements form about 55% and 45% of total blood volume respectively.
It is a yellow or straw-colored, alkaline viscous fluid constituting nearly 55% of the blood volume. 90 - 92 percent of plasma is made up of water and the rest 6 - 8% is contributed by proteins.
The components of blood plasma are as follows:
Plasma contains majorly the proteins like fibrinogen, globulins and albumins.
They are present in the plasma as ions. Sodium and chloride are the main cations and anions of the plasma respectively. Some anions like bicarbonates, phosphates and some cations like Ca++, Mg++, iron and manganese are also present in smaller amounts.
Small amounts of carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen are present in the plasma.
Waste products found in blood plasma are urea, uric acid, ammonia and creatinine.
Certain factors required for clotting or coagulation of blood are present in the plasma. They remain in an inactive form.
Plasma contains sugar. 80 - 100 mg per 100 ml of blood is the normal level.
It is the main lipid content in the plasma. 80 - 180 mg per 100 ml is the normal level.
The blood plasma performs the following functions:
Serum is the liquid portion of the blood that remains after coagulation of blood. It includes inorganic salts (electrolytes), antibodies, antigens, and hormones but no clotting factors.
Question 1. Serum is different from blood because it lacks _______________.
(b) clotting factors
Solution : Serum is a plasma without clotting factors. It includes inorganic salts (electrolytes), antibodies, antigens, and hormones but no clotting factors.
Question 2. Which plasma protein is responsible for blood clotting
(c) Serum amylase
Solution : Plasma contains majorly the proteins like fibrinogen, globulins and albumins. Fibrinogens are required for coagulation or clotting of blood. Globulins are involved mainly in the defence mechanisms or immunity of the body. Albumins help in osmotic balance.
Question 3. Lymph differs from blood because it contains
(a) no plasma
(b) more RBCs and less WBCs
(c) more WBCs and no RBCs
(d) plasma without proteins
Solution : Lymph is the fluid which helps in the transport of substances in the body. It contains WBCs which help provide immunity.
Question 4. Normal blood pH is
Solution : Blood has a slightly alkaline pH which is around 7.4.
Question 1. Write down the functions of blood plasma?
Solution : Blood plasma plays a vital role in many bodily activities as follows:
Question 2. Write down the composition of blood plasma?
Solution : The components present in the blood plasma are proteins, inorganic salts, dissolved gases, waste products, clotting factors etc.
Question 3. How is plasma different from serum?
Solution : Serum is the liquid portion of the blood that remains after coagulation of blood. It includes inorganic salts (electrolytes), antibodies, antigens, and hormones but no clotting factors.
Question 4 What are plasma proteins?
Solution : Plasma contains majorly the proteins like fibrinogen, globulins and albumins. Fibrinogens are required for coagulation or clotting of blood. Globulins are involved mainly in the defence mechanisms or immunity of the body. Albumins help in osmotic balance. It is the most abundant protein found in the blood plasma.
|The Living World||Biological Classification||Plant Kingdom|
|Animal Kingdom||Morphology of Flowering Plants||Anatomy of Flowering Plants|
|Structural Organization in Animals||Cells: The Unit of Life||Biomolecules|
|Cell Cycle and Division||Transport in Plants||Mineral Nutrition|
|Photosynthesis in Higher Plants||Respiration in Plants||Plant Growth and Development|
|Digestion and Absorption||Breathing and Exchange of Gases||Body Fluids and Circulation|
|Excretory Products and their Elimination||Locomotion and Movement||Neural Control and Coordination|
|Chemical Coordination and Integration|