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Renewable and Non-Renewable resources

Natural resources are those resources that are available in unlimited supply such as sunlight, air, water, land vegetation, and animal life. Natural resources are of two types, renewable resources, and non-renewable resources. These resources contribute equally to the benefits of humans and the environment.

Renewable resources

Renewable resources are those resources that are responsible for the production of renewable energy. Renewable sources are natural. Solar energy, wind energy, water, biomass, geothermal are some examples of renewable resources. 

You may also want to learn - what is photosynthesis.

Types of renewable resources

Stars are made up of spheroid plasma that is held up together tightly with the help of its gravitational force. Sun is also a type of star. The Sun is the closest star to earth. During the nighttime, there are millions of small stars which are visible to naked eye. Historically, some of the most noticeable stars were grouped as asterisms and constellations. They all seem very tiny to our eyes because of the distance from the earth to the stars. But actually, they are huge and some are even bigger than earth and other planets in the solar system.

Solar energy

It is energy obtained from the Sun. This solar energy is captured to generate heat or electricity through panels or mirrors. Solar cells convert sunlight directly into electricity. The solar thermal collectors use this heat absorption panel for generating electricity.

Renewable & Non-renewable resources

Wind energy

Wind energy is used to provide mechanical power to electric generators with turban so that they work as pumping. It consists of a rotor that is connected to the generator. Electricity is produced with the help of wind energy. The windmill is a structure having blades that convert the wind into rotational energy. It uses renewable resources to generate electricity.

Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy is energy that is obtained from thermal energy which is stored in the earth. Volcanoes and hot drinks I used to capture this energy E and then get converted or used by industries for water heating and other purposes.


Hydropower is the energy e which is generated by the use of water. It is formed by making use of tides known as tidal energy. Ocean Surface waves are also used to produce electricity called wave energy.


Bioenergy is formed from biomass which is a waste of animals and plants. This biomass has chemical energy and when it is burnt then produces bioenergy. The heat generated is used to produce electricity and run generators.

Advantages of Renewable energy

1.It is an inexhaustible energy.
2. This energy is pollution-free and doesn't provide greenhouse gas.
3.It is easily generated.
4. Renewable resources are unlimited.
5. These resources have low carbon emissions.
6. You don't have to depend on other countries for the supply of renewable sources.

Disadvantages of Renewable resources

1. It is difficult to set up a renewable energy plant due to feasibility constraints.
2. Energy like solar energy is used only during the daytime. You cannot use it during the rainy season and at night times.

Non Renewable energy

Non-re newable energy is obtained from fossil deposits. Some examples of non-renewable energy resources are coal, petroleum products, compressed natural gas, gold, uranium, rare earth elements, etc. These resources are present in limited amounts because they take a long time to form.

Types of Non-renewable energy

Fossil fuel

Fossil fuels are obtained by the dead remains of plants and animals. Examples: natural gas, Coal, Oil, etc.

Nuclear fuel

Uranium is a common example of nuclear fuel. Nuclear power provides 6 percent of total energy and 13-14 percent of world electricity.

Advantages of Non-renewable resources

1. Non-renewable resources are affordable, for example, diesel and oil.
2. Easily accessible and compatible.
3. It is easy to store.

Nuclear fuel

Uranium is a common example of nuclear fuel. Nuclear power provides 6 percent of total energy and 13-14 percent of world electricity.

Disadvantages of Non-renewable resources

1. Once the energy source is used up then it cannot be replaced.
2. It increases greenhouse gases.

Difference between Renewable and Non-Renewable resources

1. Renewable resources cannot be changed over time whereas non-renewable resources deplete with time.
2. Renewable resources include water and sunlight whereas non-renewable resources include fossil fuels like petroleum and coal.
3.Renewable resources have low carbon release whereas non-renewable resources have high carbon emission values.
4.The cost of renewable resources is high whereas the cost of non-renewable resources is low.
5.Infrastructure of renewable energy is expensive and not easily formed in most countries whereas infrastructure of non-renewable energy is cost-effective.
6.Renewable resources require a large area whereas non-renewable resources occupy a lesser area.
When natural gas, coal, and oil are burned to form energy, they emit gases like carbon dioxide. It is clear that not all energy that is produced from renewable sources is sustainable. Many renewable energies have a low adverse impact on human health and the environment.

The topic of renewable and non-renewable resources is broadly discussed in NCERT Class 10 Science Chapter 16

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