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Condensation - Reaction, Process, Factors, Importance and Water Cycle



Condensation is a process by which water vapor changes into liquid water.

Condensation Reaction

It is a combination of two molecules to form a single molecule. During this process, small molecules are lost e.g. water.

Condensation is also defined as the process in which the gaseous phase changes into a liquid state. It occurs when water vapor changes into liquid form when it comes in contact with the cooling surface. When these come in contact with the cold surface it forms water droplets.

You can relate this concept to your daily life purposes. For example, after working in summer under the sun we feel thirsty. We drink cold water from the refrigerator. You can notice some water droplets outside the bottle. Where do these droplets come from? Yes, this occurs due to the condensation process.

Process of Condensation


Condensation occurs when water changes its State. i.e. from a gaseous phase to a liquid phase. This process occurs at any temperature but the pressure of the liquid state is less than the pressure of condensing gas.

It is a chemical reaction in which two molecules combine to form large molecules. In this process, hydrogen is removed and hydroxide comes from many different molecules. The removed H and OH form the same molecules in a dehydration reaction.

In the condensation reaction, the H is removed from the electronegative atom while H is removed from the C atom in the dehydration reaction.

Water Cycle


The condensation process is important for the water cycle. It is responsible for forming the clouds. Water vapor in the air is responsible for cloud formation, which comes down in the form of rain. Due to the movement of water, this phase changes the water between solid, liquid, and gas. Then the water molecule gets arranged randomly in vapor form. When condensation occurs heat release in the atmosphere leads to change the phase from vapor state to liquid state. This process occurs when hot air rises and cools down.

For the condensation process, the atmosphere must be fully saturated. Usually, this process occurs around dust particles. It helps to maintain water balance in the environment and is also involved in the industrial process for separating mixtures and formation of pure substances.

Condensation in Organic Chemistry

Condensation is also used to describe many varieties of organic reactions. Inorganic chemistry is defined as a reaction between two or more molecules having the same or different compounds which result in the formation of carbon-carbon bonds without the elimination of molecules like water, alcohol, halides, etc.

There are two types of Condensation Reaction -

Intramolecular Condensation - In this reaction, two functional groups of the Same molecules react to remove simple molecules e.g., condensation of two amino acids to form peptides. Intermolecular Condensation - In this reaction, the condensation reaction occurs between two molecules of the same or different compounds.

Factors That Affect Condensation

There are many factors that affect condensation -

  • Water Vapor
  • Room Temperature
  • Outdoor Temperature
  • External And Internal Temperature Variations

Importance of Condensation

Condensation is vital to sustaining life on earth. When water molecules get heated, they start attracting each other. They start moving rapidly and lose their masses which makes them rise. When gas cools, the water molecules attract each other and fall in the form of rain. Rain is a major source of freshwater on earth. Condensation helps in agriculture as well. When condensed water falls on the ground in the form of precipitation it allows the water to be available for plants and animals. Condensation plays an important role in the survival of humans. If condensation didn’t occur, then water vapor would remain in gaseous form and gaseous water would not be able to sustain human life.





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