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Difference Between Plant Cell and Animal Cell

Plant cell

Plant cell and eukaryotic cell which has true nucleus and organ release which play a certain specific function. Plant cells are eukaryotic cells. It has a cell wall present outside the cell membrane. The plant cell is rectangular and has a larger size than the animal cell. Both plant and animal cells are eukaryotic so that's why these share some cell organelles. Plant cells and animal cells are quite different from each other. The differences are understood by examination of cells under an electron microscope.

Difference between plant & animal

Plant cell structure

The plant cell includes many cell organelle cells like cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, plastids, Central Vacuole, Golgi Apparatus, Ribosomes, Mitochondria, Lysosome.

Cell wall - Cell wall is an outer layer of a plant cell. It is composed of cellulose, lignin, glycoprotein, pectin, hemicellulose, lignin. It is located outside the cell membrane and consists of protein-polysaccharide and cellulose. Cell walls provide support to the cell.

Cell membrane - Cell membrane is a semipermeable membrane that is present with the cell wall. It is made up of a thin layer of fat and protein. It plays an important role in regulating the entry and existence of a substance within the cell.

Nucleus - The nucleus is a membrane-bound structure that is shown only in eukaryotic cells. It helps to store DNA required for metabolism, cell division and growth.

Plastids - Plastids are membrane-bound organelles that have their DNA. It is used in the synthesis of molecules.

Central Vacuole - It makes up 30 percent of a mature cell. Tonoplast surrounds the central vacuole. It helps to sustain turgor pressure against the cell wall.

Golgi Apparatus - It is found in all eukaryotic cells. It involves distributing macromolecules to different parts of the cell.

Ribosomes - They are the smallest membranes bound organelles that contain RNA and proteins. These are the sites of protein synthesis.

Mitochondria - They are double-membrane organelles that are found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. It is also called the powerhouse of the cell.

Lysosome - They are also known as Suicidal Bags because they hold digestive enzymes. It also acts as cellular waste disposal by digesting and engulfing food, particularly and unnecessary substances in the cell.

Types of plant cell

  1. Collenchyma cell - These cells have thick cell walls.
  2. Sclerenchyma Cells - The sun helps to support the cell. These are dead cells and have a very thick cell wall.
  3. Parenchyma cells - These cells are found in leaves responsible for photosynthesis and cellular respiration. It stores a substance like protein and starch and also helps for the repair of plants.
  4. Xylem cells - The cell transport water and some nutrients throughout the plant roots to leaves.
  5. Phloem cells - The cell transports nutrients to all parts of a plant.

Animal cell

An animal cell is also a kind of eukaryotic cell. It lacks a cell wall. It has a true membrane-bound nucleus with cellular organelles. Ostrich egg is the largest animal cell. The shape of animal cells varies, some are curved, concave, spherical, and rectangular.

A typical structure of animal cell contains cell membrane, Nuclear membrane, nucleus, centrosome, Lysosome, cytoplasm, Golgi Apparatus, Mitochondrion, Ribosomes, Endoplasmic reticulum, Vacuole, Nucleopore.

Types of Animals cells

An animal cell is also a kind of eukaryotic cell. It lacks a cell wall. It has a true membrane-bound nucleus with cellular organelles. Ostrich egg is the largest animal cell. The shape of animal cells varies, some are curved, concave, spherical, and rectangular.

  • Skin cell - This cell is found in the dermis and dermal layer. IT acts as a protection of many internal parts and also prevents loss of water through dehydration.
  • Bone cell - Bone cell helps in the formation of skeleton bones of animals. It also provides support and movement to the body.
  • Muscle cell - It is responsible for body movement.
  • Blood cells - The cell carries hormones and nutrients. Carry oxygen to different parts of the body.
  • Nerve cells - Nerve cells help to transport signals or messages to the brain. The signals are sent from CNS and sensory receptors.

Difference between Plant cell and Animal cell

  • Plant cells range from 10 to 100 micrometers, whereas animal cells range from 10 to 30 micrometers.
  • Plant cells store energy in the form of starch, whereas animal cells store energy in the form of carbohydrates and glycogen.
  • Plant cell is surrounded by a rigid or hard cell wall with a plasma membrane, an animal cell is enclosed by a thin plasma membrane.
  • The nucleus is present in plant and animal cells. In a plant cell, it lies on one side of the cell whereas in an animal cell lies in the center of the cell.
  • Endoplasmic reticulum is present in both plant and animal cells.

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