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Uses of Water

Uses of Water - Chemistry of water, Different uses of water, Recycle and reuse of water, Practice Problems, FAQs

Hey, let me tell you some interesting facts related to one of our major essential needs. Everyone can easily guess that we all are dependent on this basic necessity of life i.e of course “Water”.

Natural sources of water are known as water resources, and they may be used as a source of water supply.

Only 3% of the water on Earth is freshwater, with slightly more than two-thirds of it frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps. and 97% of it is salt water.

Only a small portion of the leftover fresh water that hasn't frozen is located above ground, the majority is found as groundwater.

After knowing the above fact, many of you might be surprised how less water is available for our use. There are multiple uses of water and we can’t imagine doing our regular household life without water. But can we full fill our requirements if there is so little water available? This is a serious and a big question which needs to be answered.

India has around 4% of the world's water resources and makes up 18% of the global population. Indian Rivers Inter-link is one method for addressing the nation's water problems.

Here we are discussing some major uses of water and learn how we can reuse, recycle and preserve these natural resources for our future generations.


  • Chemistry of Water
  • Different uses of water
  • Recycle and reuse water
  • Practice Problems
  • Frequently asked questions-FAQs

Chemistry of Water:

A basic molecule in chemistry is water. Its molecular structure is very clear. It consists of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. Each hydrogen atom is covalently bound to oxygen by a shared pair of electrons. Additionally, oxygen possesses two electron pairs that are not shared, resulting in an H-O-H bond with a bond angle of 104.5°. The all O-H bonds are polar. (3.5) E.N. of O > (EN of H (2.1) (Both numbers are Pauling Scale values)

Different uses of water:

Although it is not evenly distributed, water is kept in many places around the world. It is supposedly an all-purpose solvent. Sea, lake, rain, wells, streams, boreholes, and ponds are a few examples of water sources. It is employed in the production of power, drinking, and washing. Here are some examples of how water is used in various fields.

  • Domestic uses of water
  • Industrial uses of water
  • Water used for agriculture purposes
  • Water used in the generation of hydroelectric power

Let us discuss the above important uses of water in detail!

1. Domestic uses of water:

Naturally, the usage of water in our homes is the most significant. Indoor and outdoor household uses of domestic water are both possible. Drinking, cooking, bathing, washing dishes and clothes, brushing teeth, watering the garden, cleaning pets, and many other daily activities are included. Consequently, for all of our household demands, a high-quality domestic water storage tank is a need.

Here are a few important domestic uses which are depicted in the images.

2. Industrial use of water:

Many businesses and the goods they produce wouldn't exist without water. Almost all steps in the manufacturing and production processes around the world involve the usage of water. Water is essential and is present in almost every product that has been produced on the globe, whether it be deionized water for the electronics and pharmaceutical industries or softened water for boiler feed purposes. To put things in perspective, the industry is responsible for about 40% of all water abstractions. Despite this, a large number of multinational corporations operate manufacturing operations in regions of the world with a shortage of fresh water, with more than two thirds of businesses currently reporting exposure to water risks.

Water is either utilized to create the product or to cool the machinery used to create products. For cleaning, cooling, processing, transporting, diluting, or creating a product, industrial water is employed. The manufacture of chemicals, paper, and food consumes the most water.

3. Water for agricultural purposes:

Historically, India has had an agrarian economy, with around two thirds of its people relying on agriculture. As a result, the Five Year Plans have given the construction of irrigation to boost agricultural production a very high priority, and multifunctional river valley projects like the Bhakra-Nangal, Hirakud, Damodar Valley, Nagarjuna Sagar, Indira Gandhi Canal Projects, etc., have been started. In actuality, irrigational needs currently account for the majority of India's water consumption.

89% of surface water and 92 % of groundwater are used for agricultural purposes, which also uses the majority of both resources.

While the industrial sector only uses 2% of the available surface water and 5% of the available groundwater, the domestic sector uses a higher percentage (9%) of the available surface water than the industrial sector. Compared to other industries, the agricultural industry uses a substantially larger percentage of the total water supply. However, as the nation develops, it is expected that the proportions of its household and industrial sectors will rise.

The regulation of water quality in fisheries is crucial. Aquatic species spend most of their lives—if not their whole lives—in the water. Because of this, fisheries have stricter water quality requirements than many other beneficial uses.

4. Water used in the generation of hydroelectric power:Hydropower, often known as hydro energy, is a type of renewable energy that uses water from rivers and dams to power hydropower plants. A generator spins when a turbine's blades rotate due to falling water, converting the mechanical energy of the spinning turbine into electrical energy. A considerable portion of the world's electricity is produced by hydroelectric power.

Hydroelectricity is still significant to the country even if fossil fuel and nuclear power facilities still supply the majority of the country's energy. Large power generators are now installed inside dams. The turbine blades, which are constructed of metal rather than leaves and connected to generators, are spun by the water flowing through the dams. Energy is generated and delivered to households and businesses.

Recycle and reuse water:

Reusing and recycling are two additional ways we may increase the supply of fresh water.

For cooling and fire fighting, using water of lower quality, such as recovered wastewater, would be an alluring choice for enterprises looking to save money on water. The water left over from bathing and washing dishes can also be used for gardening in urban settings. You may water your garden with the same water you use to wash your car. This would conserve water of higher quality for drinking. Water recycling is currently being done on a small basis. However, there is a tonne of potential for recycling to replenish water.

Few techniques must be used to avoid water waste and sustain their use for future generations.

  • Watershed management:

The efficient management and conservation of surface and groundwater resources are the primary concepts of watershed management. It entails preventing runoff and storing and replenishing groundwater using a variety of techniques, including percolation tanks, recharge wells, etc. But in a wider sense, watershed management entails the preservation, renewal, and wise use of all-natural (such as land, water, plants, and animals) and human resources within a watershed.

The goal of watershed management is to achieve equilibrium between society and natural resources. Community involvement is crucial to the development of watersheds.

  • Rainwater harvesting:

A technique to collect and store rainwater for multiple reasons is called rainwater harvesting. Additionally, it is used to refuel groundwater aquifers. Directing rainwater to wells, pits, and borewells, is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly method of conserving every drop of water. Rainwater collection enhances water availability, stabilizes the groundwater table, improves groundwater quality by diluting pollutants like fluoride and nitrates, reduces soil erosion and flooding, and if utilized to replenish aquifers, stops saltwater intrusion in coastal locations.

Practice Problems:

Q1. Which of the following best defines the type of resource water is?

A. Non-renewable Resources
B. Abiotic resource
C. Biotic Resource
D. Cyclic resource

Answer: (D)

Solution: A cyclic resource is anything that may be created repeatedly. Water is a cyclic resource that is widely available worldwide. It covers over 71% of the earth's surface, while freshwater only makes up about 3% of the total amount of water.

Q2. Which of the following sectors uses the greatest amount of water overall in the nation?

A. Agriculture
B. Industrial
C. Domestic use
D. All of the above

Answer: (A)

Solution: 89% of surface water and 92% of groundwater are used for agricultural purposes, which also uses the majority of both resources.

While the industrial sector only uses 2% of the available surface water and 5% of the available groundwater, the domestic sector uses a higher percentage (9%) of the available surface water than the industrial sector. Compared to other industries, the agricultural industry uses a substantially larger percentage of the total water supply.

Q3. Ocean water cannot be used for drinking purposes directly because:

A. it is harmful
B. it is toxic
C. it is salty
D. it is acidic

Answer: (C)

Solution: Salt is present in seawater. Humans that drink seawater are thereby ingesting salt and water into their cells. While modest amounts of salt can be consumed by people without harm, the amount of salt in seawater exceeds what the human body can metabolize.

Q4. Which of the following water resources is the largest?

B. Sea
C. Pond
D. Lake

Answer: (A)

Solution: The largest source of water is the ocean. It accounts for 70% of the Earth's surface and 97 percent of the planet's total water content.


Frequently Asked Questions-FAQs:

Q1. Where does the water for our home activities come from?
Your home receives water from a private well or the public water system. Essentially, it is groundwater that the local corporation has cleaned for portable use.

Q2. Why is water so crucial for life?
The human body is made up of more than three-fourths of water, and all animals and plants require water to thrive. Water is used by all living things to transport nutrients throughout the body and remove waste. Among its many crucial functions, water aids in the digestion of food and the preservation of organisms' heat.

Q3. How might glaciers be utilized as a water source?
Glaciers offer a dependable source of water during the dry season in many mountainous regions of the world with seasonal rainfall. Mountains could be referred to as the "Water Towers of the World" since they supply lowland areas with water through glacier melt and orographic rainfall.

Q4. What is meant by the term “water cycle”?
The water cycle demonstrates how water is constantly moving both inside the Earth and in the atmosphere. It is a complicated system with a wide range of processes. Water vapour is created when liquid water evaporates, and this water vapour then condenses to form clouds and falls back to earth as rain and snow

Related topics:

Hydrogen Peroxide

Hydrogen bonding


Hardness of water

Heavy Water

Properties of water

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