Taxonomy is the branch of study that deals with principles and procedures involved in the classification, nomenclature, and identification of organisms.
This method reflects the organism’s most significant features and relationships.
The main purpose of biological classification is to organise different plants and animals species in to groups
As a result, the study of one organism of a group gives us an idea about the rest of the members of that particular group.
Taxonomic knowledge about the organism is based on its form and structure (morphology), cell (cytology), development process (embryology), remnants of the past organisms (fossils), and ecological relationship.
The knowledge related to taxonomy helps the biologist to characterize and name the organism.
History of classification and taxonomy:
Greek scholars Hippocrates (460-377 BC), often referred to as 'Father of Medicine' and Aristotle (384-322 BC), often referred to as 'Father of Biology'. divided animals into four major groups like insects, birds, fishes, and whales.
Theophrastus (370-285 BC), often referred to as 'Father of Botany', in his book Historia Plantarum, classified plants on the basis of their habit, form, and texture, into four categories-trees, shrubs, undershrubs, and herbs. He gave names and descriptions of 480 plants in his book.
The system of artificial classification is introduced by Pliny the Elder. His book, Historia Naturalis, mentions over 1,000 economic plants.
John Ray has coined the terms monocotyledons and dicotyledons.
He also coined the term species for the group of organisms that share morphologically similar traits.
Carolus Linnaeus, a naturalist known as the 'Father of Taxonomy', published Systema Naturae (1758) and gave descriptions of 4326 species of animals.
Species Plantarum (1753) contains descriptions of 5900 plants species arranged according to the system of classification based on sexual characters.
Binomial nomenclature is the system introduced to name the plants and the animals by Linnaeus.
Organising organisms in an ordered manner is known as classification.
The branch of science dealing with the principle and procedure of the biological classification is defined as Taxonomy.
Term taxonomy was coined by A.P. de Candolle.
It consists of the following elements:
The set of universal laws and practices which provide the proper and distinct name to an organism is defined as nomenclature.
This allows us to differentiate and easily recognise a specific organism from others.
The classification of organisms is the arrangement of organisms into groups on the basis of similarities and dissimilarities.
The hierarchy of the categories is based on the affinities and relationships of various groups.
This classification of organisms is closely correlated with the nomenclature system.
The categories which come under classification are Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.
This is the method of identifying and determining the correct place of placement of organism in the system of classification.
Identification is also supported by certain taxonomical aids.
Consider three different species of plants that are A, B, and C.
Another plant named D which may resemble B in terms of characteristics.
Identification is termed as the recognition of the plant as identical to the already known plant B.