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Structure and Function of Cytoplasm

The cytoplasm is a densely concentrated solution that fills every cell and is covered by the cell membrane. It is mainly formed from water, salts, and proteins. In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm includes all kinds of material inside the cell and outside of the nucleus. All the organelles in eukaryotic cells, like the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria, are in the cytoplasm. The part of the cytoplasm that is not contained in the organelles is known as the cytosol. Albeit, cytoplasm may seem to have no particular form or structure, it is one of the highly organized. A protein framework scaffold called the cytoskeleton gives the cytoplasm along with the cell its structure.



Cell organs comprise various structures that occur within cells. All the parts are different and perform particular functions. Cells usually have three important components i.e., cell membrane, cytoplasm, and the nucleus.

The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a bi-lipid membrane layer that separates the cell organs from their outward surroundings, and also from the various other cells. The outside shield of a cell where all the various parts that involve the nucleus and cytoplasm are covered.


Next is the nucleus, which is one of the biggest organelle present in the cell. They got a separate control of a cell. And the last organelle in the cytoplasm has a jelly-like material in which all the cell organelles are positioned.

It is a very important part that belongs to the cell. In texture it is jelly-like that brings together the cell membrane and nucleus. In every cell, the cytoplasm is embedded whereas the different cell organs like the endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, mitochondria, vacuoles, etc. lie inside it.


It can simply be seen below a microscope using the technique of staining. Function-wise, this is the place for different biochemical reactions to occur inside a cell. The maximum of the cell’s metabolism occurs in this part of the cell.

The physical nature of the cytoplasm varies from time to time. Sometimes, there occurs a quick diffusion across the cell that makes the cytoplasm look similar to a colloidal solution. While other times, it seems to take on the characteristics of a gel-like or glass-like substance. It has the features of viscous and elastic materials that can reshape gradually under external force along with regaining its original shape and conformation with very less loss of energy. Portions of the cytoplasm that are close to the plasma membrane are also a lot ‘stiffer’ whereas the areas near the interior look like free-flowing liquids. These differ from the cytoplasm to appear to depend on the different metabolic processes that occur within the cell and perform a crucial role in carrying out particular functions and protecting the cell from all kinds of stressors.

The cytoplasm can be subdivided into three different components:
1. The cytoskeleton with its related motor proteins
2. Organelles and other types of large multi-protein complexes
3. Cytoplasmic inclusions and dissolved solutes are present.

Functions of cytoplasm

The primary function of the cytoplasm is to allow cells to support their turgidity, that allows every cell to maintain their shape and structure. Other important functions of the cytoplasm are listed below. Let us go through them one by one:

  • The jelly-like texture of fluid in the cytoplasm is made of water and salt and it occurs inside the cell’s membrane and implants all the different parts of the cells and its organs.
  • It is considered to be the birthplace of many functions that occur within the cell because it comprises enzymes and molecules which are needed in the breakdown of all the waste produced
  • The cytoplasm takes part in governing activities related to metabolism.
  • It gives a definite existence to the cell. It fulfills up the cells and enables all the cell organs to stay back in their specific positions. The cells void of cytoplasm would flatten and all the elements will not allow easily of one to the other organelle.
  • A portion of the cytoplasm of the cell, the cytosol is the part that contains no organs. Instead, this cytosol is covered by a matrix that fills up the sections of the cell which do not carry the organs.





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