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Animal Husbandry

The agricultural activity of breeding and raising livestock is known as animal husbandry. Livestock refers to domesticated animals that are produced for human consumption or profit. As a result, it is both a science and an art form for farmers. Animal husbandry is concerned with the care and production of animals that are beneficial to people, such as cows, buffaloes, pigs, horses, cattle, lambs, camels, and goats. It is so broad that it now covers poultry farms and fisheries.

Since before the beginning of civilization, humans have relied on animals for various items, including food, clothing, and security. Consequently, improving animal breeds to produce more acceptable quantitative and qualitative animal species has been a significant human accomplishment. For this reason, humans have constantly attempted to enhance domesticated animal breeds and make them better useful.

And over 70% of the world's livestock population is estimated to be in India and China. However, their contribution to global agricultural output is just 25%, indicating that their productivity per unit is low. As a result, modern technologies are used and standard animal breeding techniques and care to enhance quality and production.

Management of farms and farm animals

Food production has received an even boost thanks to a professional approach to conventional farm management methods. Farm management is the practice of care and scientifically raising, cleaning, breeding, and caring for farm animals to maximize their output.

Dairy farm management: Dairy farming is managing animals to prepare milk and milk products for human use. The following animals are available in a dairy:

  • Milking cows, buffaloes, goats, and sheep
  • Shepherd dogs can serve dairy farms in transporting herds of cows, sheep, goats, and other livestock from one place to another.
  • Cats are being used on some dairy farms to keep rats away.

Milk can be used to make a variety of products at a dairy farm, including:

  • Cream: Cream is made from milk that has been churned. The fat in milk rises to the top and is separated from the liquid by pulling it out. This cream has a fat level of 10-70 per cent.
  • Curd: Due to bacterial activity, milk is transformed into curd.
  • Buttermilk: Buttermilk is the liquid left behind after the butter has been removed.
  • Ghee: when butter is heated, the sweat moves and the fat is almost 100%.
  • Condensed milk: Condensed milk is milk that has had the water content removed, either with or without the addition of sugar. It has a milk solids content of 31% and a fat content of 9%.
  • Powdered milk: milk that has been ground.
  • Cheese: Cheese is made up of casein, a coagulated milk protein, and fat and water.

In dairy farm management, We work with methods and systems that enhance production and improve milk quality.

a) Selection of breed: Choosing a suitable species with high producing potential and disease resistance is critical.
b) Housing: For the production potential to be fulfilled, the cattle must be adequately cared for, appropriately housed, have access to sufficient water, and be disease-free.
c) Feed: Cattle should be fed scientifically, focusing on the quality and quantity of fodder.
d) Hygiene and cleanliness
e) A veterinary doctor's visit regularly

The following are the desirable qualities or characteristics of the parent, which are often selected for cattle breeding:

  • Tolerance to climatic conditions
  • Lactation period
  • High yield of produce
  • Resistance to diseases
  • Proper age of reproduction
  • Good health
  • General appearance

There are 26 cow breeds and seven buffalo species, each with its body colour, horns, and head. Buffaloes are the primary source of milk, which is most Indians' sole intake of animal protein. Buffaloes, in comparison to cows, produce more milk and milk with higher fat content. They are also more illness resistant and live longer. Buffaloes can pay three times the amount of milk that cows can. Buffalo milk has a higher fat level and mineral content than cow milk.

Poultry farm management: Poultry refers to the domesticated birds that are raised for food and eggs. Chicken and ducks are expected, with turkey and geese thrown in for good measure. The term poultry is frequently used to refer to the meat of just these species, although it may also apply to the flesh of other birds in a broader meaning.

 

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