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Human Digestive System - Pathway, Parts, Functions, Process and Steps

The digestive system is composed of organs that work together just to metabolize energy from the food for the body. The human digestive system and nutrition are concerned with an organism's food intake and energy usage. This is an important mechanism that allows living things to get energy from a variety of sources. The food we consume is processed substantially before the nutrients in it are used for energy production.

What is the pathway in the human digestive system?

Digestion involves the food channel with several auxiliary organs as well as organ systems. The gastrointestinal tract and auxiliary organs, including the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder, make up the digestive system anatomically. The food we consume is processed extensively before the nutrients in it are used for energy. This is called the digestive system process.

Human Digestive system parts

A collection of organ systems working together to turn food into energy as well as other essential nutrients to power the body is the role of the human organ in the digestive system. The human body's digestive system consists of the sum of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and accessory organs. In the digestive process, both sections contribute simultaneously. Let us take a comprehensive look at the digestive system and its parts and functions of the human body:

  • Mouth: A food's journey begins in the mouth, also known as the oral cavity. By crushing food particles with the teeth, saliva moistens them before they are pushed into the pharynx by the tongue.
  • Pharynx- A fibromuscular y-shaped tube connected to the mouth's terminal end. The major purpose is to convey chewed food via the oesophagus from the mouth.
  • Oesophagus- This is a muscular tube connecting the throat in the upper part of the gastric tube.
  • Stomach- It acts as a muscle bag located below the diaphragm to the left of the abdominal cavity. Digestion is also maintained by the stomach's production of digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid.
  • Small Intestine- It is located directly behind the stomach and takes up the most space in the abdominal cavity. The whole intestine is coiled with folds and ridges on the inside surface.
  • Large Intestine- It is located directly beneath the stomach and wraps around the superior and lateral borders of the small intestine. It absorbs water and contains bacteria (symbiotic) that help break down waste to collect tiny nutrients.
  • Rectum- It is held as semi-solid faeces in the rectum and then defecates via the anal canal.

Accessory Organs:

  • Pancreas- It is directly beneath the stomach, a big gland. The front half is short with the duodenum, and the rear part is pointed to the left of the abdominal cavity. In addition to performing chemical digestion, the pancreatic cells release digestive enzymes which help in the processing of the nutrients absorbed.
  • Liver: On the right-hand side of the stomach, the liver forms a roughly triangular, brownish-crumpled organ of the digestive system. By producing bile, it assists in reducing fat in the digestive tract.

Process of the digestive system

The digestion process starts from the mouth and extends up to the small intestine. The primary role of the liver is to extract undigested food's water. Bacterial fermentation of nondigestible materials is made possible with their help. Food passes through the alimentary canal, a system of hollow organs and tubes extending from your mouth cavity to your stomach, small and large intestines, and ends at the anus. While travelling through the gastrointestinal tract, food particles slowly begin to be digested as they pass through the various compartments.
The following steps are involved in the digestion process. Six steps make up the digestion process:
1. Ingestion
2. Mixing and Movement
3. Secretion
4. Digestion
5. Absorption
6. Excretion


The first phase is mastication (chewing). Then, food is lubricated and moistened using the salivary glands and tongue before entering the food pipe.

Mixing and Movement

This procedure lubricates and manipulates foods before pushing them down the food pipe via peristalsis and into the stomach.


Digestive enzymes and acids are secreted by the stomach, small intestine, liver and pancreas. When it is activated, it breaks down food particles into efficient and easily absorbed components.


Complex food materials are broken down by enzymes and acids produced naturally by various digestive organs.


In the small intestine, the majority of nutrients and minerals are collected. The large intestine is responsible for the absorption of any surplus water found in the indigestible substance.


Indigestible components and waste byproducts are removed from the body via defecating.


Digestion is required to absorb the nutrients utilized by the body like an energy source, cell preparation and development and the body has various parts or organs that play their unique role to obtain these nutrients from food.

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