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Uses of Acetone: Structure of Acetone, Uses of Acetone, Practice Problems & Frequently Asked Questions

You must be cleaning your mobile, laptops and other electronic gadgets, regularly with a cleaner sold in the market. Ladies also will be using a liquid for removing their nail polish? But do you know, what is this chemical? It is a very volatile and cheap organic ketone called acetone or propanone.

Acetone is one of the most used substances for cleaning damaged paint. Wet a fine steel wool pad with acetone and gently rub it against the wood of the furniture. Apply acetone to oil paintings with a paintbrush. Many exotic woods naturally contain oils that can significantly slow down the curing of oils and varnishes as well as the adherence of water-based varnishes and adhesives. Acetone is one of the greatest solvents for removing paint since it tends to combine well with mineral oil. The mineral spirit is swiftly dried and removed because of the volatile nature of acetone.

Table of Contents:

  • Structure of Acetone
  • Uses of Acetone
  • Practice Problems
  • Frequently Asked Questions

Structure of Acetone:

Acetone is known by the IUPAC name as propanone and has the chemical formula . Acetone contains six hydrogen atoms, three carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. Because it contains a carbonyl group, it is considered under the ketone family. It is a methyl ketone made of propane with an oxo group attached to the carbon atom at 2nd position. Acetone's chemical formula is ().

Acetone is a superior solvent due to its miscibility with a variety of different chemical compounds and other polar molecules, especially water. Depending on the usage, this enables us to produce different laboratory, home, and industrial solvents. Acetone has a relatively low risk profile due to its organic makeup, strength, and ease of chemical miscibility. Acetone is a substance that plays a significant role in the chemical industry and can be found in a variety of everyday items. Let's examine a few situations in which we might utilise acetone on a regular basis.

Uses of Acetone:

1. Household Applications:

Acetone can be used to remove practically anything that would otherwise be difficult to clean with water, such as coffee stains and permanent marker stains. Acetone's superior solvent capabilities are useful for removing tough stains from virtually any surface. Acetone is indeed so effective at cleaning that it is frequently used in labs to remove oil and other leftover contaminants from beakers and glass containers. Additionally, it is used to sterilise a variety of equipment, including razor blades and surgical blades. After a home makeover, acetone is useful for cleaning paint stains that have been splattered on glass windows.

2. Cosmetics:

Acetone used to make a variety of other cosmetic products. widely employed in the cosmetics industry as a denaturant and solvent. Acetone is a typical chemical used in production, from wet wipes to hair colours. The dermatological procedure known as a "slush facial" promises to treat common skin issues like acne, chloasma, eczema, rosacea, and sunburn. This procedure is used in various countries. Acetone is normally safe even though a tiny quantity of it is absorbed via the skin and reaches the bloodstream. Acetone can, however, produce severe skin redness, irritation, and drying at high amounts. Acetone left on the skin for a long time can lead to dermatitis.

3. Nail polish remover:

Nail paint is frequently used to beautify fingernails and toenails in the modern world. The majority of nail polishes are made out of a blend of polymers that often deteriorate over time when exposed to other substances. When a person wants to test a new nail polish or when the existing nail polish starts to fade, nail polish remover is useful. Acetone is the primary ingredient in nail polish remover. One of the main uses of acetone in nail polish remover is because it is less harmful than methanol, benzene, and tetrachloroethane. By reacting with molecules on the surface and supplying electrons from the oxygen in the carbonyl group, this combustible substance breaks down the paint.

4. Pharmaceutical industry:

Acetone is frequently utilised as a solvent in fillers and active components in the pharmaceutical sector to guarantee precise dose of medication. In actuality, Joseph Lister made the first antiseptic use of acetone. Acetone is typically used as an excipient in commonly prescribed medications because it helps deliver the proper dosage of active chemicals and fillers. Chemical compounds known as solvents have the ability to dissolve, suspend, or extract other materials while preserving their fundamental chemical properties. Organic solvents contain carbon, while inorganic solvents do not, and solvents can be either organic or inorganic. Examples of organic solvents that are effective at dissolving a wide range of compounds include hydrocarbon and oxygenated solvents.

The production of medicines is one of the most typical uses for acetone as a solvent. It is non-toxic and can be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed via the skin. Living cells' increased glucose production is the result of their chemical interaction. It functions as a central nervous system depressant at high concentrations. This organic compound is the best option for including active ingredients and fillers in pharmaceuticals that are taken as liquids or pills. If acetone is not utilised in the medication, the majority of pills will be difficult to compress into a sufficient density and will not completely dissolve. Acetone is therefore necessary for a successful course of treatment.

5. Varnish remover:

You may have observed that the wood in the furniture seems to be covered in some sort of film. This protective coating is called varnish. Without wood varnish, any woodwork would be incomplete. A resin compound is applied to the furniture as part of a general process to protect it and make it look shiny. However, varnish also deteriorates with time and starts to look rusty and discoloured.

6.Laboratory use:

When conducting various organic reactions in the lab, such as reactions, acetone serves as a polar aprotic solvent. Acetone use is essential for the Jones oxidation process. It does not combine to create an azeotrope with water, hence when dissolved in it, it has a different boiling point. It is frequently used as a washing agent in laboratory glassware due to its low cost and volatility in addition to these qualities. Acetone is utilised to conduct reactions at lower temperatures since it may be chilled with dry ice to as low as . Acetone's vapour makes an excellent fluorescent tracer in research involving fluid flow because it glows under UV light. Acetone is occasionally utilised as a precipitator for proteins.

Practice problems:

Q.1. What is the hybridization of carbonyl carbon in acetone?

  1. sp2

B) sp3
(C)
(D) None of the above

Answer: (A)

Solution:The carbonyl group is present at the centre of the acetone molecule as shown on the below structure. Due to sp2hybridization, the carbonyl group's carbon is planar-trigonal and this carbon contains three sigma bonds and one pi bond.

Q.2. Acetone is used as a solvent in which of the following reaction

(A)
(B)
(C) Both A and B
(D) None of the above

Answer: (B)

Solution:Since acetone is a polar aprotic solvent, it is useful in reactions. Polar aprotic solvents are preferred for reactions.

The substrate and nucleophile can both be dissolved using polar aprotic solvents, but they don't participate in hydrogen bonding with the nucleophile.

The solvation shell of a polar aprotic solvent around the nucleophile is very thin due to the absence of hydrogen bonding. The substrate is easily attacked by the nucleophile.

Q.3. Acetone is

(A) Polar
(B) Non polar
(C) Both A and B
(D) None of the above

Answer: (A)

Solution:Due to the polarity of the carbonyl group, which results from the electronegativity differences between the oxygen and carbon atoms, acetone is a polar substance. As a result, Acetone has a dipole moment of about . When the temperature is at room temperature, acetone is a liquid.

Q.4. What is the common name of 2-propanone?

(A)Diethyl ketone
(B) Ethyl Methyl Ketone
(C) Acetone
(D) Isopropyl methyl ketone

Answer: (C)

Solution:Acetone has the chemical formula and its IUPAC name 2-propanone.

Frequently asked questions(FAQs):

Q1. Why does acetone evaporate more quickly than ethanol?
Answer:
Since acetone is a ketone, it lacks hydrogen bonding since it has no direct bonds. Despite the fact that it is an alcohol, ethanol has a direct link. So, ethanol possesses intermolecular hydrogen bonds. As a result, ethanol requires the breakdown of more strong physical bonds than acetone. In spite of having a higher surface tension, acetone evaporates more quickly than ethanol.

Q2. What are the safety measures to take when working with acetone?
Answer:
Acetone is combustible, smells nice, and evaporates rapidly. Acetone can be used to dissolve various organic substances since it is easily miscible with water. We must always remember that acetone is highly flammable and should not come into touch with open flames or hot surfaces. Acetone is known to irritate the skin and eyes of humans. When handling Acetone we must avoid contact with it and wear safety equipment. This will assist them in avoiding any type of accident.

Q3. What does ketosis mean?
Answer:
Acetone is a naturally occurring byproduct of the breakdown of fat in humans.There are various ways the body can produce energy. The first method involves converting dietary components like carbohydrates into glucose. After that, the body releases insulin, enabling the cells to utilise glucose for energy or store some of it in the muscles, liver, and fat.

However, the body is unable to utilise dietary glucose for energy if a person does not consume a lot of carbohydrates. Instead, it shifts to glucose that has been processed and saved as a kind of energy, even within fat. If this happens, the liver will start metabolising stored fat. The body produces ketones as a consequence of this activity. One variety of ketone is acetone.Ketosis is the state that the body enters once it starts producing too many ketones.

Q4. Why does acetone dissolve in both water and oil?
Answer:
Water is a polar solvent, whereas oil is a nonpolar one. Despite this, both of these solvents can dissolve acetone. Acetone has two methyl groups, as can be seen by looking at its chemical formula. Due to the non-polar nature of the oil and both methyl groups, these two methyl groups interact with the oil through dispersion forces. Due to the presence of a carbonyl group, which is polar in nature, water is able to create a hydrogen bond with it. It can also interact with other molecules via a dipole-dipole interaction.

Related Topics:

Tollens’ test Aldol condensation
Ketone Aldehyde
Acetone Structure of ketone

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