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Evolution Meaning and Types

Introduction:

  • We all have heard people normally saying “humans come from monkeys” whenever a child jumps around or eats a lot of bananas.
  • Have you ever thought if this statement is actually true or just an equivocate?
  • Oh!! A question just popped in my mind, if monkeys are the ancestors of humans, do all plants, animals, insects that we see around also have some ancestor.
  • We are going to find answers to these questions in this chapter.
  • Evolution - study of slow,continuous, and irreversible change in different species from simple to complex beings in order to become better adapted towards the changing environment.
  • As stated by Theodosius Dobzhansky “ Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution”


    bacteria


     

Topics to be Covered :

  • Origin of universe
  • Origin of life
  • Evidences of evolution
  • Theories of evolution
  • Isolation
  • Speciation
  • Evolution of man

QUIZ

Q1.Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in the origin of life?
1. Formation of protobionts
2. Synthesis of organic monomers
3. Synthesis of organic polymers
4. Formation of DNA-based genetic systems

(a) II, III, I, IV
(b) II, III, IV, I
(c) I, II, III, IV
(d) I, III, II, IV

Q2. The similarity of bone structure in the forelimbs of many vertebrates is an example of -
(a) Convergent evolution
(b) Analogy
(c) Homology
(d) Adaptive radiation

Q3. According to Hugo de Vries, the mechanism of evolution is -
(a) Phenotypic variation
(b) Saltation
(c) Multiple step mutations
(d) Minor mutations

Q4. In Hardy-Weinberg equation, the frequency of heterozygous individual is represented by -
(a) Pq
(b) q2
(c) P2
(d) 2pq

Q5. Genetic drift operates in -
(a) Non-reproductive population
(b) Slow reproductive population
(c) Small isolated population
(d) Large isolated population

Q6. Industrial melanism is an example of -
(a) Neo Lamarckism
(b) Neo Darwinism
(c) Natural selection
(d) Mutation

Q7. Variations caused by mutation, as proposed by Hugo de Vries are -
(a) Random and directional
(b) Random and directionless
(c) Small and directional
(d) Small and directionless

Q8. Which of the following had the smallest brain capacity?
(a) Homo sapiens
(b) Homo neanderthalensis
(c) Homo habilis
(d) Homo erectus

Q9. The chronological order of human evolution from early to recent is -
(a) Ramapithecus → Homo habilis → Autralopithecus → Homo erectus
(b) Australopithecus → Homo habilis → Ramapithecus → Homo erectus
(c) Australopithecus → Ramapithecus → Homo habilis → Homo erectus
(d) Ramapithecus → Australopithecus → Homo habilis → Homo erectus

Q10. S.L.Miller, an American scientist, created an electric discharge experiment in a closed flask containing CH4, H2, NH3 and water vapor at what temperature?
(a) 400° C
(b) 800° C
(c) 200° C
(d) 1000° C

ANSWER KEY

1.   (a)
2.   (c)
3.   (b)
4.   (d)
5.   (c)
6.   (c)
7.   (b)
8.   (c)
9.   (d)
10. (b)

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