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Algebra of functions, practice problems and FAQs

We all are familiar with the fact that we can perform algebraic operations on numbers but now the question arises “ Can we perform algebraic operations on functions too? What are the conditions required to perform these operations?Can you visualize the resultant function?”

So in this article, we will learn about algebra of functions i.e., how to add two real functions, subtract a real function from another, multiply a real function by a scalar(real number), multiply two real functions and divide one real function by the other.

• Addition of two real functions
• Subtraction of one real function from another
• Multiplication by a scalar
• Multiplication of two real functions
• Quotient of two real functions
• Practice Problems
• FAQs

Let h: and $p:X\to$ be any two real functions, where . Then, we can define $\left(h+p\right):X\to$ by , for all $x\in X$.

The domain of the function $\left(h+p\right)\left(x\right)$ is $D\left(h+p\right)=D\left(h\right)\cap D\left(p\right)$

Example : Let $h\left(x\right)=x+4$ and $p\left(x\right)=3x$

Then $\left(h+p\right)\left(x\right)=h\left(x\right)+p\left(x\right)$

$⇒\left(h+p\right)\left(x\right)=x+4+3x=4x+4$

The domain of the function $\left(h+p\right)\left(x\right)$ is $D\left(h+p\right)=D\left(h\right)\cap D\left(p\right)$. Now, the domain of both the functions is ,

$\cap$ = .

Subtraction of one real-valued function from another

Let and $p:X\to$ be any two real functions, where . Then, we can define $\left(h-p\right):X\to$ by , for all $x\in X$.

The domain of the function (h-p)(x) is $D\left(h-p\right)=D\left(h\right)\cap D\left(p\right)$

Example:Let $h\left(x\right)={x}^{2}+1$ and $p\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{x}$

Then $\left(h-p\right)\left(x\right)=h\left(x\right)-p\left(x\right)$

$⇒\left(h-p\right)\left(x\right)={x}^{2}+1-\frac{1}{x}$

Since D(h)= and D(p)= -{0}, $D\left(h-p\right)=D\left(h\right)\cap D\left(p\right)$

D(h-p)= $\cap$ -{0} = -{0}.

Multiplication by a scalar

Let $h:X\to$ be a real valued function and be a scalar. Then, the product $\beta h$ is a function from defined by , for all $x\in X$.

Note: The domain of function remains same as that of the original function in this case.

Example : Let $f\left(x\right)=1+{x}^{2}$ and $\alpha =3$

Obviously domain of f is also .

Multiplication of two real functions

The product of two real functions and is a function $\left(hp\right):X\to$ defined by , for all $x\in X$. It is also called pointwise multiplication.

Note : If D(h) and D(p) are domains of the two functions h and p respectively then the domain of the functions (h+p), (h-p), hp will be $D\left(h\right)\cap D\left(p\right)$

Example: Let f(x)=x+1 and $g\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{x}$

Then$\left(fg\right)\left(x\right)=f\left(x\right)g\left(x\right)$

(fg)(x)=

Since D(f)= and D(g)= -{0}, $D\left(fg\right)=D\left(f\right)\cap D\left(g\right)$

D(fg)= $\cap$ -{0} = -{0}.

Quotient of two real functions

Let $h:X\to$ and be any two real functions, where . Then, the quotient of h by p denoted by, $\frac{h}{p}$ is a function defined as $\frac{h}{p}\left(x\right)=\frac{h\left(x\right)}{p\left(x\right)}$ , provided $p\left(x\right)\ne 0$, $x\in X$.

Note: Domain of

Example : If $f\left(x\right)={x}^{2}+1$ and g(x)=x+2 then find and its domain.

Solution: We have,

Since D(f)= and D(g)= ,

as g(x)=0 at x=-2.

Note: The concept of the algebra of functions is used along with other concepts of mathematics like limits, continuity, differentiability, etc. where we need to combine two or more functions. Also, sometimes we break bigger functions into smaller ones with the help of the algebra of functions. Let us understand this with the help of some solved examples.

Practice Problems

Example : Let f: $\to$ be the function defined by  &

g: $\to$ be an arbitrary function. Let fg: $\to$ be the product function defined by (fg)(x) = f(x)g(x). Then figure out which of the following statements are true ?

(A) fg is differentiable at x = 1 if g is continuous at x = 1
(B) g is continuous at x = 1 if fg is differentiable at x = 1
(C) fg is differentiable at x = 1 if g is differentiable at x = 1
(D) g is differentiable at x = 1 if fg is differentiable at x = 1

Solution :

and g: $\to$

……(i)

……(ii)

We know that sin x is a continuous function $⇒\mathrm{sin}\left(1+h\right)=\mathrm{sin}\left(1-h\right)$

Now,if the function g(x) is continuous at x=$⇒g\left(1+h\right)=g\left(1-h\right)=g\left(1\right)$

Hence from (i) & (ii), h'(1+)=h'(1-)=(1+sin 1)g(1)

Therefore, h(x) is differentiable at x=1.

Also if g(x) is differentiable at is continuous at x=1

Therefore, h(x) will still be differentiable at x=1

Hence, options (A) and (C) are the correct answers.

Example : If and F(1)=2, then find F(101).

Solution :

Given, $F\left(n+1\right)=\frac{2F\left(n\right)+1}{2}$

$⇒2F\left(n+1\right)=2F\left(n\right)+1⇒F\left(n+1\right)-F\left(n\right)=\frac{1}{2}$

On adding the above equations, we get

$F\left(101\right)-F\left(1\right)=100×\frac{1}{2}=50$

$⇒F\left(101\right)-2=50⇒F\left(101\right)=52$

Example : If f (x) = cos (log x), then find the value of .

Solution :

f (x) = cos (log x)

Now let ,

y = 0.

Example : If . Find f(x).g(x).

Solution :

Drawing the graphs of f(x) & g(x)

Taking different values of f(x) & g(x) under the common interval using graphs of f and g

FAQs

Q1. Can we add any two real functions?
Any two real functions having common elements in their domains can be added.

Q2.Where do we use algebra of real functions?
Answer:It is used in different mathematical concepts involving 2 or more functions like, Matrices, derivatives, integrals, continuity and differentiability, etc.

Q3.What is the algebra of functions?
Answer: Algebra of functions basically deals with the addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of functions.

NCERT Class 11 Maths Chapters

 Sets Relations and Functions Triginometric Functions Mathematical Induction Numbers and Quadriatic Equations Linear Inequalities Premutations and Combinations Binomial Theorem Sequence and Series Straight Lines Conic Sections 3 D Geometry Limits and Derivatives Mathematical Reasoning Statistics Probability

NCERT Class 12 Maths Chapters

 Relations and Functions Continuity and Differentiability Differential Equations Inverse Trigonometric Functions Applications of Derivatives Vector Algebra Matrices Integrals Three Dimensional Geometry Determinants Applications of Integrals Linear Programming Probability
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