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cerebrum and cerebellum - Biology

Human Brain

The brain is a part of the central nervous system. The human brain is made of about 100 billion neurons. The cerebral cortex contains roughly 10% of all neurons and is made of six layers of neurons; such a cortex is called Neocortex. If the layers of neurons are less than six, such a cortex is called an allocortex. The human brain is divided into- forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The brain is covered by tough tissues known as meninges. The dura mater is a thick double layer of fibrous tissue which resists the movement of the brain that may stretch and break the blood vessels. The middle layer of the brain is called the arachnoid. The inner layer is called the pia mater. It is highly vascular and closest to the brain. It is a moderately tough membrane of connective tissue fibers that cling to the surface of the brain.

Cerebrum

It forms one of the major parts of the brain. It is divided into two halves via a deep longitudinal cleft. The left and right cerebral hemispheres are the two parts of the brain. A tract of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum connects the two hemispheres. The cerebral cortex is a layer of cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres. This layer is often thrown into prominent folds. Due to its greyish appearance, the cerebral cortex is referred to as the grey matter. This color is due to the presence of neuron cell bodies in this region. The cerebral cortex is made up of sensory areas, motor areas, and regions that are neither sensory nor motor. They are called association areas and are responsible for complex functions like communication, intersensory associations, and memory.

Fibers of tracts are covered with myelin sheath, and it makes up the inner part of the cerebral hemisphere. It gives a white appearance to the layer and is called white matter. Also, the cerebrum wraps itself around a structure called the thalamus. The thalamus is a major coordinating center for sensory and motor signaling. Basal ganglion is a collection of subcortical nuclei in the forebrain. They are present at the base of the cortex. Hypothalamus is also a significant part of the brain. It lies at the base of the thalamus. The hypothalamus contains several centers which control factors like the urge to eat and drink, body temperature, etc.

Cerebellum

It is a part of the hindbrain. It is also known as “little brain”. It plays an important role in motor control, motor learning, coordination, timing, and precision of movements of the body. Learning to ride a bike, hitting a baseball, learning a new skill are some activities that require vital functioning of the cerebellum. Alcohol drinking immediately impacts this region by disrupting the body’s coordination and movements. Severely drunk people might not be able to walk properly due to improper functioning of the cerebellum. It receives information from other regions of the brain and nervous system including the brain stem, spinal cord, and cerebrum. Located at the back of the brain, it is immediately inferior to the occipital and temporal lobes, and within the posterior cranial fossa.

A tough layer of dura mater called tentorium cerebella separates these lobes. It is separated from pons by the fourth ventricle. A narrow middle line, called vermis connects the two hemispheres of the cerebellum. Tightly folded grey matter is located on the surface of the cerebellum which forms the cerebellar cortex. White matter is located underneath the cerebellar cortex. The cerebellum is divided into three lobes- the anterior lobe, the posterior lobe, and the flocculonodular lobe. Cerebellum gets damaged due to the breaking down of nerve cells and causes ataxia, dystonia, tremors, etc. any damage to this region of the brain may lead to a brain tumor, infections, head injury, Parkinson's disease, etc., which is fatal for health.

Differences between cerebrum and cerebellum

Cerebrum Cerebellum
It is also known as the new brain. It is also known as the little brain.
It is the largest part of the brain It is the second-largest part of the brain.
It is a part of the forebrain. It is a part of the hindbrain
The white matter of the cerebellum does not form the arborvitae. Arborvitae is formed from white matter in this region.
It is responsible for controlling voluntary actions, intelligence and memory It controls coordination, precision, and accuracy of movements.
It is divided into two regions called cerebral hemispheres. It is divided into two cerebellar hemispheres by a narrow middle line called the medial vermis.
85% of the brain weight is due to the cerebrum. 10% of brain weight is due to the cerebellum

 

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