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Conservation of Forest and Wildlife


Forests

A forest may be defined as a large area consisting of a wide variety of trees and plants. 31% of the earth’s surface is covered with forests. Forests are the primary sources of many valuable assets such as food, fabric, oxygen, medicine, and crude materials. Forests likewise contribute towards preventing soil erosion and safeguard over 80% of the creature species and earthly biodiversity. They additionally help in working on the socioeconomic factors of the nation.

Over the past few decades, deforestation has been happening at an alarming rate. Some of the primary causes of deforestation include overpopulation, urbanization, expansion of lands, agricultural activities, and other commercial purposes. The consequences of deforestation include elevated temperature levels (global warming), elevated sea levels, increased greenhouse effect, and wildlife extinction.

Ways to conserve forests

Forests serve as a natural resource and habitat for a wide variety of living organisms on the earth. Millions of animal species take shelter in forests. Conservation of forests is one of the major steps to be taken to bring back sustainability in ecosystems. Here are some of the ways using which we can conserve forests and promote sustainability.

1. Controlling and regulating deforestation: Industrialisation and urbanisation have caused a huge loss to forests and wildlife. One of the ways to conserve forests to by controlling and regulating the cutting of forests. Shelterwood cutting, selective cutting, and clear-cutting methods may be employed to regulate the felling of trees.
2. Afforestation: The most effective and promising way of conserving forests is afforestation. With afforestation, we can not only increase the overall forest cover but also recover the land lost due to deforestation.
3. Control forest fires: One of the most significant causes of the loss of forests is forest fires. Although forest fires aid in replenishing essential nutrients from dead organic matter in the soil, they cause a huge loss. The two types of forest fires are natural and artificial. Artificial forest fires are when the complete forest land is set on fire to convert the land for agricultural purposes. Artificial forest fires should be avoided completely. And, innovative forest fire fighting techniques should be discovered and implemented to stop natural forest fires.
4. Proper care: Forest trees are also supplied with pesticides to protect them from harmful pests and diseases. This is when most trees get impacted negatively. The use of chemical substances poses a huge threat to the whole forest. Therefore, proper care should be taken while safeguarding the plants from harmful pests and diseases.

Wildlife

An animal species that is not domesticated constitutes wildlife. Thus, any living creature that lives in forests forms wildlife. It is found in practically all environments like rainforests, boreal backwoods, fields, meadows, deserts, and so on. Wildlife is a vital and crucial part of our environment. Here are a few reasons why conserving wildlife is of utmost importance.

  • More than 33% of our drug needs are obtained from wild plants. The forest gives incredible breadth to leap forwards in the field of clinical science and innovation alongside the necessities for the huge scope of assembling anti-infection agents and different medications for medicinal use.
  • A forest keeps up with temperatures universally, accordingly battling against the impact of greenhouse gasses. Forests also aid in forestalling the ocean levels to rise strongly.
  • Plants and animals are interdependent on each other. Plants support animal’s existence and vice versa. Both of them are fundamental to maintaining ecological balance.
  • Fossil fuels got from timberlands help in the socio-economic development of the country, which further contributes towards a superior way of life.
  • The forest is a natural habitat for many animal species. Thousands of animal species reside in these immense forests.
  • Microorganisms in wildlife fix the nitrogen levels, thereby promoting soil fertility.

Ways to conserve wildlife

Now that we have understood the significance of conserving wildlife, let’s explore some of the ways to do the same.

1. Prevent deforestation: Deforestation is one of the leading causes of the loss of wildlife. Wildlife can be protected and conserved with the help of afforestation.
2. Develop protective areas: Developing protective areas for animals to live is another promising way to conserve wildlife. Some of the examples of protective areas include wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, zoos, and so on.
3. Protecting critically endangered species: Safeguarding the vulnerable and critically endangered animals from becoming extinct is another way of promoting wildlife. These critically endangered or vulnerable species may be brought to safer places such as zoos where they can breed and reproduce.
4. Ban on wildlife hunting: Introducing strict rules on banning wildlife hunting is critical to stop further loss of wildlife.

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