During electromagnetic induction, the electromagnetic field of a conductor interacts with a magnetic field to produce an electromotive force (EMF). Michael Faraday discovered it in 1831 and it forms the basis for almost all electrical devices, including power plants, electric motors, transformers, circuitry, and many other things.
Induction occurs in coiled wires when there is a change in magnetic field, which results in voltage (EMF) being produced. In addition to changing the strength of the magnetic field, Faraday found ways to move a magnet through a coil of wire, and move the coil through a magnetic field as well.
The law of electromagnetic induction was formulated mathematically by James Clerk Maxwell in 1831 based on Faraday's discovery.
A current is produced when magnetic field changes lead to voltage production (electromotive force). In alternating current (AC), this occurs as the conductors are placed in a moving magnetic field (due to a change in the nature of AC). In stationary power (direct current), it occurs when conductors are constantly moving.
Faraday performed an experiment where the voltage across a circuit was measured by attaching a conducting wire to a measuring device. The voltage detector measured the voltage in the circuit as the bar magnet was pushed through the coiling. There was a change in voltage measured which suggested that a current is flowing when the bar magnet was moved through the coil center, bringing about a change in magnetic flux.
A number of factors influence this voltage production, which Faraday discovered in his experiment. The factors are as follows:
The amount of voltage induced in a coil is proportional to the number of turns of the coil and the rate at which the magnetic field is changing. Faraday established this law through his experiments.
The applications of the Electromagnetic Induction are given below:
The formula for electromagnetic induction
According to the following relation on electromagnetic induction, we can calculate the induced voltage:
e= N dΦ/dt
The significance of this discovery lies in the fact that it uses magnetic fields instead of batteries to generate electrical energy in a circuit. The principle of electromagnetic induction is used in everyday appliances like motors, generators, and transformers.
According to Lenz's law of electromagnetic induction, the current creates a magnetic field that opposes the current flow. A loss of energy is caused by eddy currents due to their tendency to oppose. Eddy currents lead to waste generation by converting the useful forms of energy into useless heat energy. However, there are some applications in which it is desirable to lose useful energy. Examples include: