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Classification of Organic Compounds - What are Organic Compounds and Structure


Chemical compounds existing in the form of solid, liquid or gaseous state which contain carbon in its molecule are known as organic compounds. There are a large number and classification of organic compounds and therefore a proper systematic classification was required. Organic compounds can be broadly classified as acyclic or open chain compounds and cyclic or closed chain compounds.


Organic compounds are viewed in a number of formats, including space filled models, Lewis structures and structural formulas. It is common to view the hydrogens associated with the carbon links as lines or to leave them all together in a structural formula of an organic molecule. They are understood to be present in order to complete the 4 of the bonds provided by the carbon atoms.

Organic Compounds

Organic compounds have been detected by mass sources as they exist in large quantities in the ecosystem. The results obtained indicate that all extractants were able to perform direct analysis after extraction without any cleanup phase. The form of organic compounds extracted depends on the solvent used, suggesting their distinct ability to solubilize various biosolid organic compounds. Organic chemistry was once thought to be confined to the study of substances produced as part of the natural processes of living organisms. Friedrich Wohler discovered in the early 1800s that the organic compounds can be synthesized from minerals and other non-organic materials in the laboratory and therefore be produced artificially. The modern chemistry and materials sciences have concentrated on the remarkable properties of carbon atoms for the production of synthetic chemicals, pesticides and a host of other things. Organic compounds contain carbon, almost always bonded to another carbon and hydrogen.

In some cases, other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus are also bound to the carbon chain. There are a few carbon compounds that are not considered as organic molecules. Those involve carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, cyanates, cyanides and other carbon-containing ion compounds. Alcohols are one of the most essential organic compounds which include chemicals such as ethanol and isopropanol. They are used as antiseptics and ethanol is a key ingredient of the beverage industry. Also, carboxylic acid includes a wide range of chemicals, including pharmaceuticals. Aspirin is one of the oldest commercial medicines to be supplied, containing carboxylic acid.

While there are millions of organic compounds, there is a substantially simple classification scheme for these compounds and a specific method for naming even the most complex organic compounds. Organic compounds also contain carbon, along with other elements essential for the reproduction of living organisms among other things. Carbon is the main factor as it has four electrons that can accumulate up to eight electrons in an outer shell. As a result, several forms of bonds can be formed with other carbon atoms and elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Hydrocarbons and proteins are very good examples of organic molecules capable of producing long chains and complex structures.

Classification of Organic Compounds

The organic compounds made up of these molecules form the basis for chemical reactions in plant and animal cells and these reactions provide the energy required to find food, to replicate, and for all other life-related processes. The classification of these organic compounds is made as follows:

Acyclic or Open Chain Compounds: These compounds are also known as aliphatic compounds. They have straight or branched chains. For example, ethane, isobutane, propane, acetic acid and so on.

Alicyclic or Closed Chain or Ring Compounds: These are cyclic compounds which contain carbon atoms connected to each other in a ring and are also known as homocyclic. When atoms other than the carbon atom are also present then it is called heterocyclic. For example, cyclopropane, cyclohexene, tetrahydrofuran and so on.

Aromatic Compounds: They are a special type of cyclic compounds which contain benzene and other ring related compounds. Similar to closed chain compounds, they can also have heteroatoms in the ring. Such compounds are called heterocyclic aromatic compounds. The reason for being called aromatic compounds is due to the fact that the outstanding property of such compounds is that they have a very strong odor. For example, Benzene, Aniline, Naphthalene and so on.





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