Endemic species are those that are found in only one region in the world. For example, Kangaroo is found only in Australia. Such species exist in only one geographical region.
The endemic species are important because they live in a habitat that is restricted to a particular area due to many factors like climate change, urban development, and many more. The area that contains an endemic species is reserved in some ways. For example, the Hawaiian Islands in Australia and the Southern tip of Africa. Nearly 90 percent of natural species are recorded as endemic. Endemic species like the Galápagos tortoise are found in Galápagos Islands.
The endemic species are confined in one location because they are highly adapted to the climatic conditions and particular niches. These species mainly eat only a certain type of plant which is found for that specific reason. These plants are also adapted to that climatic condition and soil type.
Native species are defined as the species which are developed and found in a specific environment. For example, Koala is a native of Australia. Native species are also known as indigenous species.
The native species are not restricted to a respective area. They can also be found in other areas of the world. However, an endemic species is confined for a particular reason and they are not found anywhere else in the world.
The importance of epidemic species is that they are valuable to biodiversity. These species are rare so if they are extinct from their place then the population will reduce drastically. Hence, it is important to take proper care of this endemic species. Both the endemic plants and animals are dependent on each other. If few endemic plants get extinct, then nearly 10 to 30 endemic animal species also get extinct.
Two factors affecting the endemic species are:
1. Habitat loss and fragmentation
Nearly 60% of endemic species in India are confined in the Himalayas and the Western Ghats; mainly concentrated on the area of Western Ghat, North East India, northwest Himalayas, Andaman, and Nicobar Island.
For studying endemism, we not only consider species but also the classification of family order and genus arrangements, as they are an important criteria for differentiating any species. Some plants grow in a particular geographical area and adapt to the environment while others continue to live within the limits of that environment.
Allochthonous are species that can reproduce and colonize in a new area. For example, California coast redwood crossed Northern American and Eurasia million years ago but now exists near the Coast of Northern California.
Asiatic Lion - Asiatic lion is also known as the Indian lion which is placed in a Gir Forest National Park of Gujarat.
Sangai Deer - Sangai deer is also known as brown antlered deer. It is found only in Keibul Lamjao National Park of Manipur.
Lion Tailed Macaque - This species is found in a Western Ghat of South India.
Nilgiri Tahr - This wild sheep species is located in the Nilgiri hill of Western Ghat. It also inhibits the grassland habitat in Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Nilgiri Blue Robin - Nilgiri Blue Robin is a passerine bird that is found at 1200 altitude in the grassland of Western Ghat.
Purple frog - The purple frog is also known as the pig-nosed frog which is found in a Western Ghat.
Kashmir Stag - Kashmir stag is also known as Hangul and found in the forest of the Dachigam National Park. It is also found in Himachal Pradesh.
Sapria Himalayan - It is a root parasite plant that is reported from Arunachal Pradesh and also found in Meghalaya, Manipur, and Assam.
Uvaria Lurida - Uvaria Lurida is a part of the Soursop family. These species are distributed all over the world. These are climbing trees or shrubs and have 150 species.
Nepenthes Khasiana - Nepenthes Khasiana is a carnivorous plant which is located in the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya. It is a pitcher plant and it is believed that it is the only species of pitcher plant which is found in India.
Pygmy Hog, Assam, Nilgiri
Blue Robin, Nilgiri Hills
Bonnet Macaque, Indian Giant Squirrel, Malabar Civet, Western Ghats
Namdapha Flying Squirrel, Arunachal Pradesh