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Amplitude Modulation - Physics

Amplitude modulation is a straightforward way of transmitting a signal, such as sound or a wave, from one end to the other. Sound is a type of energy or vibration. It moves through the air as waves. This wave has a transverse character. The amplitude and frequency of a wave are both essential. We modulate the amplitude of the carrier wave in line with the signal intensity in amplitude modulation.

What is Amplitude?

Amplitude of a wave is defined as the greatest displacement of vibrating particles in a particular medium from the equilibrium position. The energy of a wave is determined by its amplitude. Waves with a higher amplitude have more energy and waves with lower amplitude have less energy. The amplitude of a sound wave reflects its loudness. Higher pitch sound amplitudes are larger, whereas lower pitch sound amplitudes are smaller.

What is Modulation?

We must send the music or voice produced in a broadcasting station across a greater distance to a receiver. These signals are first transformed into audio signals using a microphone before being sent. These audio transmissions will have a frequency range of 20 - 20000 Hz. These signals have little energy and cannot travel a great distance. To send a signal from one station to another, it must have a frequency greater than 20 kHz. The benefit of using a high frequency is that it can send data over a great distance while using little power. As a result, to convert a low-frequency audio signal to a high-frequency electrical wave, the audio signals superimpose on a high-frequency electrical wave. This high-frequency wave is known as the carrier wave or carrier signal. After superimposing, the resulting wave is known as the modulated wave. This process is known as modulation.

Demodulation

Antennas from radio stations send a modulated signal like speech and music. The audio signal and the carrier signal are separated at the receiving stations. We refer to this as demodulation. Audio signals can be amplified and reproduced using a loudspeaker.

Types of Modulations:

There are 3 types of modulations:

  • DSBSC (Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier): The carrier is suppressed and transmitted via both sidebands in this form of transmission (upper sideband and lower sideband). It is feasible to decrease power waste in the carrier by doing so.
  • SSBSC (Single Sideband Suppressed Carrier): This mode of transmission sends one sideband (either the upper or lower sideband). To decrease power waste, the carrier and the opposite sideband are silenced.

 

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