A cell is the most fundamental unit of life. If we disassemble an organism at the cellular level, the smallest observable autonomous component would be the cell. Thus, cells are the fundamental unit of life, responsible for all of life's functions. Each cell contains fluid known as cytoplasm, which is surrounded by a membrane.
Cell organelles are the cellular components. These cell organelles comprise both membrane and non-membrane bound organelles that are found within cells and have different shapes and activities. They coordinate and work effectively in order for the cell to function normally. A majority of them perform by giving form and support, while others are involved in a cell's motility and reproduction. Organelles are classified into three kinds depending on the absence or presence of a membrane.
1. Plasma Membrane
The cell wall, which is made up of a lipid bilayer and proteins, is also known as a cell wall or cytoplasmic membrane. The plasma membrane is a selective membrane that is permeable that is found in both plant and animal cells. This implies that it only lets specific materials into and out of the cell based on the requirements. The cell wall in an animal cell serves two functions: it provides form and protects the cell's contents.
Both plant and animal cells include cytoplasm. They are jelly-like liquids that fill the whole space between the cell wall and the nucleus. They are made up of water as well as organic and inorganic substances. These cell organelles contain enzymes, which are primarily responsible for regulating all metabolic activity occurring within the cell and are the site of numerous chemical processes.
The nucleus is a double-membraned organelle that is found in eukaryotic cells. The nucleus is spherical, enveloped by a nuclear membrane, and black in colour. The nuclear membrane has an undefined shape similar to a cell membrane and serves as a barrier between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Nucleoli are spherical entities that serve as control centres of the cell and the chromosomes can also be found in the nucleus.
4. Endoplasmic Reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of fluid-filled membranous tubes. They are known as the cell's transport system because they are engaged in moving things throughout the cell. The two kinds of endoplasmic reticulum are mentioned below:
1. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum - They are made up of cisternae, tubules, and vesicles that are distributed throughout the cell and play a role in protein synthesis.
2. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum - They are the storage organelles involved in the synthesis of lipids and steroids, and are also in charge of detoxifying the cell.
Ribosomes are macromolecular machinery found in nearly all live cells that are responsible for biological protein production. As a result, ribosomes are often known as the cell's protein manufacturers. Ribosomes are made up of two components: ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. The primary function of ribosomes in all live cells is protein synthesis, which ensures the cell's survival.
6. Golgi Apparatus
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi body, is an organelle present in eukaryotic cells that is responsible for transporting produced macromolecules to various regions of the cell.
Microbodies are membrane-bound, vesicular organelles that may be found in both plant and animal cells. They include numerous enzymes and proteins and can only be seen under a microscope.
Vacuoles are storage bubbles with unexpected forms that are present in cells. They are liquid-filled organelles that are encased in a film. The vacuole stores food or a variety of substances that a cell may require to live. It also serves as a repository for trash. Vacuoles eventually dispose of the byproducts. As a result, the remainder of the cell is protected against infection. The size and quantity of vacuoles in animal and plant cells vary. Plant cells contain bigger vacuoles than animal cells.
A cell has the ability to multiply itself and is hence referred to as a building block of life. Several substances, including lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins, are found in the cytoplasm. The cellular structures are known as cell organelles, and they are suspended in the cytoplasm.