You must have seen your family member or somebody falling sick and taking medicines. Do you know that for a fever there are multiple drugs and you have to be careful in choosing them?
Do you know which disease causes the maximum mortality across the world? More people die not because of war, accidents or natural calamity every year but because of Cancer. There are many types of cancer and so are the drugs for them.
Science has advanced to the extent of developing drugs for each cancer for example. These drugs attack only specific cancer cells and not other normal cells and improve recovery. These are called target therapy.
Come let us understand some of the basics of these drugs and their targets.
Why do we study this concept?
Falling sick and taking medicines are common affairs today for all ages. But, most of the drugs do not differentiate between normal and sick cells. This is the reason for slow recovery and the worst side effect of drugs. More specific the drug attacking the sick cells or cells that are responsible for the disease (or target) fast will be the recovery and less will be the side effect. To develop a drug that can stop or destroy the target cell, we need to know what are drugs and natural immune chemicals produced in our body and their function.
Come on, let us understand the concept of target therapy.
Table of contents:
Drugs or medicines are chemicals that produce changes in the functional and or mental nature of animals. It is used to diagnose or prevent, cure diseases and to alleviate pain. Drugs are classified in terms of their chemical structure mode of action, physiological effect and mechanism of action.
Chemical messengers are substances that are sent to receptor proteins' binding sites. The shape of the receptor site alters to accommodate a message.
As a result, a chemical messenger sends a message to the cell without really entering it.
The steps involved in this process are as follows:
1. Receptors bind to the specific chemical messenger.
2. The receptor's shape changes when the chemical messenger is attached.
3. The receptor regains its structure once the chemical messenger is removed.
Q1. Give an example to differentiate between agonist and antagonist?
Answer: The fundamental difference between these two medications is that one simulates the desired reaction, while the other attaches to the receptor and inhibits/slows it. Agonists fundamentally imitate the actions of regular neurotransmitters like acetylcholine and the responses they elicit from the receptors they attach to. The binding of atropine on the other hand prevents the reaction given by acetylcholine.
Q2. Neurotransmitters are examples of
B. Drug acceptor
C. Chemical messenger
D. Drug receptor
A neurotransmitter is a chemical that allows cells to communicate with one another and acts as chemical messengers.
Q3. What are the binding sites in a protein?
Answer: A binding site is a location on a protein that binds to a ligand, which is a smaller molecule than the protein. Binding sites are tiny spaces on the tertiary structure of proteins where ligands bind with modest forces (non-covalent bonding)
Q4. Morphine is an example of
A medication that binds to a receptor and elicits a functional response is known as an agonist. Morphine is an example of an analgesics, also called painkillers, which are medications that relieve different types of pain.
Q1. What is the difference between drugs and medicine?
Answer: A drug is any substance that, when consumed or otherwise introduced into the body, has a physiological impact. Medicine refers to a substance that is used in treating a disease or relieving pain, and that is usually in the form of a pill or a liquid. Medicine has a favourable effect on our health.
Q2. The average molecular mass of a drug is
A. 50-60 g mol-1
B. 40-70 g mol-1
C.150-200 g mol-1
D. 160-480 g mol-1
Drugs are heavy molecule with huge molecular masses in between 160-480 g mol-1
Q3. Write the uses of Medicines.
Answer: Medicines are used to treat, prevent, and diagnose diseases.
Most pharmaceuticals used as medicines are potential poisons, thus we should not take them in higher doses than those recommended.
Q4. Receptors are located mostly in the
A. Inner part of the cell membrane
B. Middle part of the cell membrane
C. Outer part of the cell membrane
D. Left corner of the cell membrane
Solution: The body's communication system relies heavily on receptors. Receptors are placed on the cell membrane's outer surface so that their little active site protrudes from the membrane's surfaces and opens onto the cell membrane's outside region.
Q5 What type of binding force exists between the messenger and the receptor?
Answer: The messenger may be attached to the target receptor by ionic, covalent, van der Waals or hydrogen bonding forces.
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