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Unsaturated Solution – Definition, Types, Examples, Characteristics, Practice Problems and FAQ

Let’s perform an experiment. Take 100 mL water in a glass and add 1 tablespoon of sugar. Stir the solution till all sugar particles are dissolved. Now add 1 more tablespoon of sugar. Continue this experiment till you find a point where further addition of sugar is not possible.

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Can you guess why this happened?

Well, every solution is made up of solute and solvent. There’s a certain threshold of solvent to dissolve the solute. This condition is called equilibrium.

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As you reach equilibrium, further addition of sugar is not possible. This state of solution is called saturation, and the solution is called saturated solution. The opposite of saturated solution is unsaturated solution. Unsaturated solution is a solution in which more solute can be dissolved before it attains the saturated state.

On this concept, we will get to know more about unsaturate solutions and their characteristics!

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • Unsaturated Solution – Definition
  • Types of Saturation
  • Unsaturated Solution – Characteristics
  • Unsaturated Solution – Examples
  • Factors Affecting Unsaturated Solution
  • Practice Problems
  • Frequently Asked Questions – FAQ

Unsaturated Solution – Definition

A solution in which the solute’s concentration is lower than its equilibrium solubility is called an unsaturated solution. When the components of a combination are evenly distributed throughout, the mixture is said to be homogeneous. When the concentrations of dissolved solutes reach the solvent's saturation point, the solution is said to be saturated.

Types of Saturation

There are three stages of saturation in a solution.

  • Less solute is present in an unsaturated solution than what it might actually dissolve. These kinds of solutions have no undissolved material left in the solute.
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  • A saturated sample has more solvent per volume than an unsaturated solution. There are still some undissolved substances in the solution after the solute has been dissolved to the point where it can no longer be dissolved. The solution ultimately sinks to the bottom of the container as the amount of undissolved material increases.
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  • In comparison to a saturated solution, a supersaturated solution has more solvent distribution. The solvent will easily separate from the solution through crystallisation or another type of precipitation. Certain circumstances can be required to supersaturate the solution. It contributes to raising solubility of a solution such that additional solute may be added.
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Unsaturated Solution – Characteristics

  • Unsaturated solutions contain far less solute than they can hold. They may continue to dissolve the solute until they reach saturation.
  • A solubility curve is the line that depicts a solution's solubility from 0 oC to 100 oC. The solution is referred to as unsaturated if the concentration is below that line.
  • An unsaturated solution at one temperature might become saturated at a different temperature since solubility is a temperature-dependent phenomena.

Unsaturated Solution – Examples

  • Vinegar is an acetic acid solution in unsaturated water.
  • In a specific gas mixture, the solute may be solid, liquid, or even gaseous, while gases act as the solvent. Some examples of unsaturated gaseous solutions are air, smoke, and mist.
  • An unsaturated sugar solution is produced when a spoonful of sugar is put to a hot cup of coffee.
  • In fact, a mist is mostly a water vapour solution in unsaturated air.
  • A solution of hydrochloric acid in water is known as unsaturated hydrochloric acid (0.01 M HCl).
  • The solute concentration in such an unsaturated solution is typically much lower than some of its solubility equilibrium. Additionally, there will be a solvent restriction for each solution. As a result, solutes have a particular value for solubility in the solvent.

Factors Affecting Unsaturated Solution

Temperature

When temperature increases it allows more solute to dissolve. As we know, temperature increases the kinetic energy of the particles due to which motion of the particles increases and so do the solubility,

Size of the solute particles

You must have observed that powdered sugars dissolve very quickly as compared to sugar cubes. Smaller the size of the solute particles greater will be the solubility.

Stirring

Stirring the solution increases the net dissolving rate, which minimises concentration build-up at the solvent surface, which would otherwise lead to higher crystallisation in a still solution.

Practice Problems

  1. The solution that cannot dissolve any more solute at a specific temperature is referred to as
  1. Saturated solution
  2. Unsaturated solution
  3. Aqueous solution
  4. Super saturated solution

Answer: A

Solution: A saturated solution is one that contains all of the solute that can dissolve in it, given the conditions in which it exists. A saturated sample has more solvent per volume than an unsaturated solution. There are still some undissolved substances in the solution after the solute has been dissolved to the point where it can no longer be dissolved. The solution ultimately sinks to the bottom of the container as the amount of undissolved material increases.

So, option A is the correct answer.

  1. Which of the following statements is true about unsaturated solution?
  1. Unsaturated solutions can not dissolve more solute.
  2. Unsaturated solution contains more solute than they can hold.
  3. Unsaturated solution can hold more solute
  4. None of the above

Answer: C

Solution: When the solute concentration is lower than its equilibrium solubility, a solution is said to be unsaturated. In an unsaturated solution, further addition of solute is possible.

So, option C is the correct answer.

  1. A supersaturated solution is ______ when there are solute crystals present.
  1. Unstable
  2. Stable
  3. Diluted
  4. None of the above

Answer: A

Solution: Supersaturated solutions are unstable because the solute is present in them at a concentration higher than the equilibrium solubility value.

So, option A is the correct answer.

  1. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
  1. Solubility is not a temperature driven phenomena
  2. Unsaturated solution can add more solute
  3. A homogenous mixture is one in which the constituents are uniformly distributed.
  4. In a solution, there are three stages of saturation

Answer: A

Solution:

  1. An unsaturated solution at one temperature might become saturated at a different temperature since solubility is a temperature-dependent phenomena. Therefore, the statement given in option A is incorrect.
  2. When the solute concentration is lower than its equilibrium solubility, a solution is said to be unsaturated. In an unsaturated solution, further addition of solute is possible. Therefore, the statement given in option B is correct.
  3. A homogeneous mixture is the one in which the constituents are uniformmly distributed. These mixtures contain a constant composition throughout the substance. For instance, air, lemonade, soft drink water, a mixture of salt and water, a mixture of sugar and water, and so forth. Therefore, the statement given in option C is correct.
  4. There are three stages of saturation in a solution namely, saturation, unsaturation, and supersaturation. Therefore, the statement given in option D is correct.

So, option A is the correct answer.

Frequently Asked Questions – FAQ

In an unsaturated solution, can we add more solute?

Smaller amounts of solute than what can dissolve are present in unsaturated solutions, leaving no residue. In an unsaturated solution, the solute would dissolve into the solvent if more were added since the solution has not yet attained saturation.

Are diluted and unsaturated the same term?

A dilute solution is a sort of liquid solution made by adding additional solvent to a concentrated solution, but an unsaturated solution is a type of solution into which we can add more solute. This is the main distinction between diluted and unsaturated solutions.

How can you tell whether a solution is concentrated or diluted?

A solution that contains a significant amount of dissolved solute is said to be concentrated. A solution is said to be dilute if it only contains a little amount of dissolved solute.

What effect can temperature change have on a solution's saturation level?

Because heating a solution enhances its solubility, a saturated solution can be changed into an unsaturated one on heating. An unsaturated solution at one temperature might become saturated at a different temperature since solubility is a temperature-dependent phenomena.

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Mole

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Normality

Strength of solution

Density

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