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Frictional Force: Definition, Formula, Calculation, Types, Dry and Fluid Friction

Whenever the surface of one item comes in contact with the area of the other, frictional force opposes that motion. Friction reduces a machine's physical efficiency. It reduces the output-to-input proportion. Quite an amount of an automobile's energy is spent reducing friction. The phenomenon of friction ensures that the tires are always in contact with the road while the vehicle is in motion so that there is no room for slippage. We can also note the friction on the clutch ensures the vehicle moves. Frictional phenomenon is the most important aspect in the field of physics for the optimal working of everything ranging from machinery, automation to even molecules. Let's talk about frictional force and its many forms -

Frictional force is influenced by a number of factors -

  • Roughness and the amount of power impelling them together have a big impact on these forces.
  • The quantity of frictional force is affected by the object's angle and location.
  • When an object is put flat against another object, the frictional energy is proportional to the object's mass.
  • When an item is pressed on a surface, the frictional force increases until it exceeds the mass of the beam.

Frictional Force Calculation

The following formula is the general formula in order to calculate the frictional force and it is written as follows -

FFriction = µ • FNormal

Here,
FFriction – Represents the Frictional Force being calculated
FNormal – Represents the corresponding normal force exerted by the object (also can be represented using N)
µ – Represents the Coefficient of Friction

Now let us calculate the normal force. The normal force is the supporting force applied to an item in contact with a body that is steady. The normal force may be readily expressed using the formula given -

N = mg
Here,
N – is the normal force
m – is the mass of the object
g – is the acceleration due to gravitational force

The weight of the item is denoted by m, while the gravitational acceleration is denoted by g. The power of the normal surface is lowered the more the surface is slanted in the event of the inclination angle, thus the equation has become -

N = mg cos(θ)

Here,
N – is the normal force
m – is the mass of the object
g – is the acceleration due to gravitational force
θ – is the angle between the gravitational pull and the normal force (Angle of inclination)

The magnitude of the coefficient of friction depends on the type of object being subjected to frictional forces along with the circumstances such as the surface area, angle of inclination and so on.

If the object is not moving along a surface, then the type of coefficient to be utilized is called static friction or µstatic. However, if the object is under motion, then the coefficient to be utilized is called sliding friction or µsliding.

The type of object also plays a major role as the coefficient of friction is different for different types of objects and the angle of inclination is different too. The ratio of a plank of wood on clay ground, for instance, would be 0.6, but it would vary from 0.25 to 0.5 if it had been on a block of pure wood.

Frictional forces come in a variety of forms. Static, Kinetic, Rolling, and Sliding Friction are the four types of friction that occur between hard substrates. Fluid friction is the friction that occurs when fluids and gases collide. As a result, friction is categorized as -

Dry Friction

The response among two solid materials in contact while they're in motion (kinetic friction) and if they're not (dry friction) is described by dry friction (static friction). The applied force generated among the solid materials is proportionate towards both static and kinetic friction. Various coefficients of friction are used to examine the difference between various compounds. This means that given the very same force applied, certain materials have a higher stiffness than others. Each of these values has been determined through experimentation. It is classified as -

  1.       
  2. Static Friction
  3.       
  4. Kinetic Friction
  5.       
  6. Rolling Friction
  7.       
  8. Sliding Friction

Fluid Friction

Fluid friction is a force that prevents fluid from flowing freely. It's a condition in which the fluid acts as a barrier between both the contact objects. When both sides give a high degree of resistance, it is referred to as high viscosity, and this is commonly referred to as oily.

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