• Call Now

1800-102-2727
•

118 Elements, Their Symbols and Atomic Numbers - Need of Assigning Symbol to Elements, Methodology of Giving Symbols, IUPAC System of Nomenclature, Practice Problems, FAQs

We all are fond of watching international cricket games. Have you ever seen the scoreboard? It usually looks like this.

Here, we can observe a lot of short forms such as b,w, wd, nb,b, lb and all these actually stand for bowled, wicket, wide,no-ball, bye, and leg-bye respectively. These short forms are used to present all the data of that particular match on the scoreboard.

Similarly, we also use symbols for chemical elements to arrange all elements with their atomic number and atomic weight in the periodic table. Let’s see why and how elements are symbolized

• Need of Assigning Symbols to Chemical Elements
• Methodology of Giving Symbols
• Atomic Number
• IUPAC Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Number Greater Than 100
• List of Elements and Their Symbols
• Practice Problems
• Frequently Asked Questions - FAQ

Need of assigning symbols to chemical elements

The periodic table of elements which is widely used in the field of Chemistry is used to quickly refer some important physical parameters of chemical elements as they are arranged in a manner that displays periodic trends of their chemical properties also. However, the Periodic Table generally displays only the symbol of the element and not its entire name.

Imagine a table with elements mentioned with their full name. It would have been a mess, just the same way any chemical reaction is written with a full name instead of its corresponding symbols. It is handy and simpler to use symbols rather than full names

Chemical elements are denoted by symbols, which often include one or two characters. Some symbols are labelled briefly using three letters and typically represent new elements having atomic number greater than 100. A chemical symbol also called an element symbol, is a letter or pair of letters used to represent a chemical element. The chemical symbol for an element is used when writing the chemical formula for a molecule, or when writing a chemical equation because it is shorter and easier.

Methodology of Giving Symbols

The Periodic Table of elements is broadly used in the field of Chemistry to get an idea of chemical elements which are arranged in a way that shows periodic trends in the chemical properties of the elements. However, the periodic table usually displays just the symbol of the element and not its complete name.

Elements symbols have been derived from many sources. Some are directly from the English name, some from their Latin roots, etc. We shall see such different sourcing of symbols now.

1. From their English Name

The majority of elements are represented by symbols based on their English names. A chemical symbol is a one- or two-letter element designation. O for oxygen, and Zn for zinc are some examples of chemical symbols. A symbol's first letter is always capitalised. If there are two letters in the symbol, the second letter is lowercase.

1. From their Latin Name

There are some symbols of elements that have Latin roots. An example of it is silver which is denoted by Ag which is derived from its Latin name "Argentum". Another such example would be the symbol 'Fe' which is used to represent iron and can be related to the Latin word for iron, "Ferrum".

1. From the country of discovery

Elements like Americium, Germanium, Europium, and Francium, are named after their place of discovery.

1. In the name of Planets and Stars

Some elements got their names from the names of planets or stars too. Look at the elements Mercury, Neptunium, Uranium, Plutonium, Helium.

.

1. In the Name of the Discoverer of the Elemen or in honour of a scientist.

Some elements were named after the famous scientist, like,

Bohrium, Curium, Einsteinium, Mendelevium and Rutherfordium

1. Elements are also named based on their behaviour!

Hydrogen got its name because it forms water.

Rubidium is named so due to its deep red colour.

Due to the faint glow in the air, phosphorus got its name.

Atomic Number

Knowing the precise composition of elements is necessary to comprehend the concepts of atomic number and valency. A single sort of atom makes up an element. The smallest indivisible unit of matter is an atom. It is made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. A positive charge characterises protons. Since neutrons are neutral, they are free of charge. The nucleus is surrounded by negatively charged electrons.

The atomic mass of an element is calculated as the sum of its protons and neutrons. The quantity of electrons orbiting an element's nucleus determines its chemical characteristics.

The total number of protons in an atom's nucleus is its atomic number. The letter Z is used to represent it. The atomic number, or fixed number of protons in an atom, is used to identify an element. The atomic number is hence distinct for each element. For this reason, understanding atomic numbers is crucial to comprehending the chemistry of elements.

IUPAC Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Number Greater Than 100

Following rule should be remembered for the IUPAC nomenclature of an element with an atomic number greater than 100.

1. The name of the element is directly derived from the atomic number by using following numerical roots:
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 nil (n) un (u) bi (b) tri (t) quad (q) pent (p) hex (h) sept (s) oct (o) enn (e)
1. Element symbols can be written by initial letters of numerical roots.
2. As per the atomic number, IUPAC Name can be derived by adding word roots and ending by ‘ium’.
 Atomic Number Name of the element Symbol of element 101 Unnilunium Unu 102 Ununbium Unb 103 Unniltrium Unt 104 Unnilquadium Unq 105 Unnilpentium Unp 106 Unnilhexium Unh 107 Ununseptium Uns 108 Unniloctium Uno 109 Unnilennium Une 110 Ununnilium Uun

List of Elements, Their Atomic Number and Their Symbols

The complete list of elements in the periodic table is given below -

 Symbol of the Element Atomic Number Name of the Element H 1 Hydrogen He 2 Helium Li 3 Lithium Be 4 Beryllium B 5 Boron C 6 Carbon N 7 Nitrogen O 8 Oxygen F 9 Fluorine Ne 10 Neon Na 11 Sodium Mg 12 Magnesium Al 13 Aluminium Si 14 Silicon P 15 Phosphorus S 16 Sulphur Cl 17 Chlorine Ar 18 Argon K 19 Potassium Ca 20 Calcium Sc 21 Scandium Ti 22 Titanium V 23 Vanadium Cr 24 Chromium Mn 25 Manganese Fe 26 Iron Co 27 Cobalt Ni 28 Nickel Cu 29 Copper Zn 30 Zinc Ga 31 Gallium Ge 32 Germanium As 33 Arsenic Se 34 Selenium Br 35 Bromine Kr 36 Krypton Rb 37 Rubidium Sr 38 Strontium Y 39 Yttrium Zr 40 Zirconium Nb 41 Niobium Mo 42 Molybdenum Tc 43 Technetium Ru 44 Ruthenium Rh 45 Rhodium Pd 46 Palladium Ag 47 Silver Cd 48 Cadmium In 49 Indium Sn 50 Tin Sb 51 Antimony Te 52 Tellurium I 53 Iodine Xe 54 Xenon Cs 55 Cesium Ba 56 Barium La 57 Lanthanum Ce 58 Cerium Pr 59 Praseodymium Nd 60 Neodymium Pm 61 Promethium Sm 62 Samarium Eu 63 Europium Gd 64 Gadolinium Tb 65 Terbium Dy 66 Dysprosium Ho 67 Holmium Er 68 Erbium Tm 69 Thulium Yb 70 Ytterbium Lu 71 Lutetium Hf 72 Hafnium Ta 73 Tantalum W 74 Tungsten Re 75 Rhenium Os 76 Osmium Ir 77 Iridium Pt 78 Platinum Au 79 Gold Hg 80 Mercury Tl 18 Thallium Pb 82 Leas Bi 83 Bismuth Po 84 Polonium At 85 Astatine Rn 86 Radon Fr 87 Francium Ra 88 Radium Ac 89 Actinium Th 90 Thorium Pa 91 Protactinium U 92 Uranium Np 93 Neptunium Pu 94 Plutonium Am 95 Americium Cm 96 Curium Bk 97 Berkelium Cf 98 Californium Es 99 Einsteinium Fm 100 Fermium Md 101 Mendelevium No 102 Nobelium Lr 103 Lawrencium Rf 104 Rutherfordium Db 105 Dubnium Sg 106 Seaborgium Bh 107 Bohrium Hs 108 Hassium Mt 109 Meitnerium Ds 110 Darmstadtium Rg 111 Roentgenium Cn 112 Copernicium Nh 113 Nihonium Fl 114 Flerovium Mc 115 Moscovium Lv 116 Livermorium Ts 117 Tennessine Og 118 Oganesson

Practice Problems

Q1. What is the symbol of the element Sodium?

1. S
2. Sd
3. Na
4. Nd

Solution: The chemical abbreviation for sodium was first published in 1814 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in his system of atomic symbols, and is an abbreviation of the element's New Latin name Natrium, which refers to the Egyptian natron, a natural mineral salt mainly consisting of hydrated sodium carbonate.

Q2. The period number of any element corresponds to its highest:

1. Azimuthal Quantum number
2. Principal Quantum Number
3. Magnetic Quantum Number
4. Spin Quantum Number

B.

Principal quantum number corresponds to the number of shells of an atom and it is represented by n and the highest value for an element corresponds to the period number of an element.

Q3. How many elements does the shortest period consist of?

1. 2
2. 4
3. 8
4. 6

Shortest period is the first period having two elements i.e., Hydrogen and Helium.

Q4. How are the elements in the periodic table arranged?

1. Increasing electronegativity
2. Increasing atomic number
3. Increasing order of density
4. Increasing order of the number of neutrons

Increasing atomic number forms the basis of the modern periodic table.

Q1. Who gave the modern periodic law?
In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer established the periodic law independently, but both defined periodicity in terms of atomic mass. It was Moseley, who observed regularities in the characteristic X-ray spectra of the elements when their frequencies were plotted against their respective atomic number. So the modifications done in the periodic law in modern times (i.e, the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers) can well be attributed to Moseley.

Q2. How do periodic trends relate to periodic law?
Periodic trends give similar patterns in the periodic table showing us the various aspects of an element such as electronegativity, atomic radius, or ionising power. The periodic law tells us that when grouped by atomic number, certain properties of elements occur periodically.

Q3. What is an atomic number?