Glycerol, also known as glycerine or propane-1,2,3-triol, is an organic compound that has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, medical, and cosmetics industries.
Glycerin is used as a moisturizer (a hygroscopic substance used to keep things moist), a solvent, and a chemical sweetener in the food and beverage industry. It is also used as a liqueur thickener and in commercially processed low-fat foods. Glycerin is also used in the production of personal care products such as skin care, shaving creams, hair care products, and glycerin soaps. Glycerin is marketed under the brand name 'Glycerin' for general use. It is a mild antibacterial and antiviral wound medicine that has been approved by the FDA. As a result, it is frequently used in the following wound care products: Hydrogel sheets based on glycerin for burns and other wounds. Glycerin is used in the production of various explosives such as smokeless powder, dynamite, gelignite, and nitroglycerin, or glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), which is an essential component of propellants such as cordite.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Glycerol is also known as glycerin. Glycerol has 3 carbon atoms, 8 hydrogen atoms, and 3 oxygen atoms and its IUPAC name is 1, 2, 3- Propanetriol or 1, 2, 3- Trihydroxypropane. Glycerol (glycerine) has the following chemical and molecular formula:
|Chemical Formula of Glycerol||C8H8O3|
|Expanded Glycerol Molecular Formula||CH2OH - CHOH - CH2OH|
Glycerol is a polyol that contains three hydroxyl ( - OH)groups in its structure.Each of the hydroxyl groups has a covalent bond with the carbon backbone. All the carbons in the structure are SP3 hybridized.
Glycerol is made from triglycerides, which are found in plants and animals. When triglycerides undergo saponification or transesterification, glycerol is produced as a by-product along with fatty acids. The triglycerides are prepared to react with sodium hydroxide to create sodium salts of fatty acids and glycerol during saponification.
This is the rapid oxidation of glycerol by potassium permanganate. Glycerin is a type of alcohol and potassium permanganate is a powerful oxidant. The reaction between these two reactants is almost instantaneous and very dramatic, with a lot of smoke and fire erupting from their mixture.This reaction can be used to show an exothermic reaction as well as the impact of surface area on reaction rate.
When glycerin comes into contact with potassium permanganate, the oxidizing properties of permanganate ions by glycerin act. Oxidation of glycerin is very exothermic, and the heat released after a few seconds also ignites glycerin into a flame and emits smoke. After adding glycerin to the shell, sparks and solid potassium permanganate are expelled from the shell, causing immediate retreat.
Triacylglycerols are the storage form of lipids and serve as an energy stock. In the case when the body is devoid of carbohydrates, these energy stores are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol for the purpose of energy. The glycerol obtained here serves two purposes: it inhibits the process of glycolysis (breakdown of glucose) and itself undergoes the process of gluconeogenesis (production of glucose from non-carbohydrate source) to form glucose. This glucose can later be supplied to the brain for utilization.
Q1. Glycerol can be formed through digestion of which of the following?
(A) Galactose (B) Fats
(C) Glucose (D) Sucrose
Solution: Heating fats (triglycerides) will lead to the formation of glycerol along with the formation of corresponding acid.
Q2. What is the name of the process of formation of glycerol via formation of allyl chloride?
(A) Epichlorohydrin (B) Acrolein
(C) Propylene oxide (D) Chloroform process
Solution: The epichlorohydrin process is the most important; it involves the chlorination of propylene to give allyl chloride which is oxidized with hypochlorite to dichlorohydrins, which reacts with a strong base to give epichlorohydrin. Glycerol is produced after the hydrolysis of epichlorohydrin
Q3. Glycerol has
(A) one primary and two secondary - OH groups
(B) two primary and one secondary - OH groups
(C) Three primary - OH groups
(D) Three secondary - OH groups
Solution: By seeing the structure of glycerol we can say that one secondary and two primary - OH groups are present in the glycerol.
Q4. Acidified KMnO4 oxidizes glycerol
(A) Oxalic acid (B) Glyceraldehyde
(C) Glyceric acid (D) Tartronic acid
Solution: Oxidation of glycerol with potassium permanganate will give oxalic acid.
Question 1. Why is glycerol soluble in water?
Answer. Glycerin, also known as glycyl alcohol, glycerin or glycerine is water soluble. This property is mainly due to the ability of its polyol group (three - OH groups) to form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. The three - OH groups of glycerin are polarized, which helps them dissolve easily in water.
Answer. Vegetable glycerin, also known as glycerol, is a clear liquid usually made from soybean, coconut or palm oil. It is odorless and has a moderately sweet taste with a syrup-like consistency.
Question 3. Is glycerine used as a sweetener?.
Answer. Glycerin belongs to a special category of carbohydrates called polyols, which also includes sugar alcohols like sorbitol and erythritol. Glycerin, like sugar alcohols, has a sweet taste, but it is not metabolized as sugar in the body and does not raise blood sugar levels.For that reason, it’s sometimes used as a sweetener in foods marketed to diabetics and low-carb dieters. Glycerin also has that moisture-attracting property. The same way that adding glycerin to a lotion helps keep your skin stay plump and moist, adding glycerin to foods helps them stay moist. So glycerin is also widely used in food manufacturing as a preservative.
Question 4. Is Glycerin Safe?
Answer. Like almost all substances, some people have hypersensitivity or allergies to glycerin. Ingesting sufficient amounts can be toxic. However, glycerin is generally safe because it is usually used to keep foods fresh or as a hypoglycemic sweetener. However, it is not calorie-free. In fact, glycerin contains slightly more calories than sugar and it's only about 60% sweet, so you may need a little more to get the sweetness you deserve. As with sugar alcohols, high doses of glycerin may have a laxative effect, which may or may not be desirable.
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