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LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT

Introduction:

  • One of the key characteristics that distinguish living organisms from nonliving is the ability to move and locomote.
  • This feature is crucial for survival as living organisms need to adapt to their environment and fulfill their own biological needs such as food, self-preservation, and mating.
  • The human body movements get polished as we grow in age, starting from crawling to later walking which leads to the movement of the whole organism.

In this chapter we will discuss the following concepts-

  • Movement and Locomotion
  • Muscular System
  • Skeletal System
  • Axial Skeleton
  • Appendicular Skeleton
  • Joints
  • Disorder of Skeletal System

QUIZ

Q1 Glenoid cavity articulates:-
(1) Scapula with acromion
(2) Clavicle with scapula
(3) Humerus with scapula
(4) Clavicle with acromion

Q2 Which one of the following is the correct description of a certain part of a normal human skeleton?
(1) The First vertebra is the axis that articulates with the occipital condyles.
(2) The 9th and 10th pairs of ribs are called the floating ribs.
(3) Glenoid cavity is a depression to which the thigh bone articulates.
(4) Parietal bone and the temporal bone of the skull are joined by a fibrous joint.

Q3 Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?
(1) Locomotion
(2) Production of erythrocytes
(3) Storage of minerals
(4) Production of body heat

Q4 Which of the following joints would allow no movement?
(1) Ball and Socket Joint
(2) Fibrous joint
(3) Cartilaginous joint
(4) Synovial joint

Q5 Osteoporosis, an age-related disease of the skeletal system, may occur due to:-
(1) Decreased level of estrogen
(2) Accumulation of uric acid leading to inflammation of joints.
(3) Immune disorder affecting neuromuscular junction leading to fatigue.
(4) High concentration of Ca++ and Na+

Q6 Select the correct statement with respect to locomotion in humans:
(1) The joint between adjacent vertebrae is a fibrous joint
(2) A decreased level of progesterone causes osteoporosis in old people
(3) Accumulation of uric acid crystals in joints causes their inflammation
(4) The vertebral column has 10 thoracic vertebrae

Q7 Select the correct matching of the type of the joint with the example in the human skeletal system:
 

  Type of joint Example
(1) Cartilaginous joint between frontal and parietal
(2) Pivot joint between third and fourth cervical vertebrae
(3) Hinge joint between the humerus and pectoral girdle
(4) Gliding joint between carpals


Q8 Three of the following pairs of the human skeletal parts are correctly matched with their respective inclusive skeletal category and one pair is not matched. Identify the non-matching pair
 

  Pairs of skeletal parts Category
(1) Malleus and stapes Ear ossicles
(2) Sternum and Ribs Axial skeleton
(3) Clavicle and Glenoid Cavity Pelvic girdle
(4) Humerus and ulna Appendicular skeleton


Q9 Select the correct statement regarding the specific disorder of muscular or skeletal system:-
(1) Myasthenia gravis- Autoimmune disorder which inhibits sliding of myosin filaments
(2) Gout- Inflammation of joints due to extra deposition of calcium
(3) Muscular dystrophy - Age-related shortening of muscles
(4)Osteoporosis- Decrease in bone mass and higher chances of fractures with advancing age

Q10 The pivot joint between atlas and axis is a type of :
(1) Cartilaginous joint
(2) Synovial joint
(3) Saddle joint
(4) Fibrous joint

Q11 Calcium is important in skeletal muscle contraction because it
(1) Detaches the myosin head from the actin filament
(2) Activates the myosin ATPase by binding to it
(3) Binds to troponin to remove the masking of active sites on actin for myosin
(4) Prevents the formation of bonds between the myo cross bridges and the actin filament

Answer Key

(1)   - 3
(2)   - 4
(3)   - 4
(4)   - 2
(5)   - 1
(6)   - 3
(7)   - 4
(8)   - 3
(9)   - 4
(10) - 2
(11) - 3

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