We came to this world, through our mother. Why?
In humans, females are capable of giving birth.
Always we wondered, how is it possible for a woman to carry a baby?
Answers lead to the specialities of the reproductive system.
The organs that are used in reproduction and giving birth to young ones is known as the female reproductive system.
Let’s take a deep dive into the female reproductive system.
The female reproductive system is divided into two types of organs: one that are involved in reproduction and are called primary sex organs. Other that are not involved in reproduction and are considered as secondary sex organs.
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They are the paired structures and are considered the primary sex organs of human females. They are situated in the upper part of the pelvic cavity. They produce female gametes called ova. Ovaries also secrete female sex hormones. Each ovary has a point from where blood vessels and nerves enter and exit and this point is known as the hilum.
Ligaments support and hold the female reproductive organs in place within the pelvis. There are three types of ligaments in females as follows:
Apart from these ligaments, there are supporting ligaments that support the female reproductive system in the pelvic cavity. These are as follows;
Ovary is composed of three layers as follows:
They are also called oviducts or uterine tubes. They extend from the periphery of each ovary to the uterus. It connects the ovary to the uterus. They have paired structures. Each oviduct is about 10 -12cm long. The oviducts are located between the folds of the broad ligaments of the uterus.
The fallopian tube is divided into four parts:
Fallopian tubes are composed of three layers that are enlisted below:
The uterus is a hollow and muscular organ that is pear-shaped. It is present in the pelvic cavity and situated between the urinary bladder and rectum. It is supported by ligaments attached to the pelvic wall. Uterus is also known as hystera or womb. In females who have never been pregnant, the uterus is about 7.5 cm long, 5cm wide and 2.5 cm thick. It is larger in pregnant women and smaller (atrophied) when sex hormone levels are low as in menopause.
The structure of uterus is described by dividing it into four parts that are described below:
The uterus is composed of three layers that depict its histology. These three layers are described below:
Endometrium is divided into two sublayers as follows:
Endometrium has three components as follows:
The uterus perform the following functions:
The uterus is supplied with blood by uterine arteries, which are branches of the internal iliac artery. Arcuate arteries (bow-shaped) branch off from uterine arteries are arranged in a circular pattern in the myometrium. Arcuate arteries are further branched into radial arteries that penetrate deeply into the myometrium. These branches before entering the endometrium branched off into two types of arterioles. These are the straight arteriole and spiral arteriole.
Vagina is a tubular structure which is about 10 cm long. It has a fibromuscular canal lined with a mucous membrane. It extends from the exterior of the body to the uterine cervix.
Vagina is a stretchable or extendable structure. It can accommodate the penis during intercourse. It receives the sperms. It forms an outlet for menstrual flow. Vagina forms the birth canal along with the cervix.
Vagina is composed of three layers as follows:
Ques:- Identify the correct sequence of uterine layers from outside to inside.
A. Perimetrium, Myometrium, Endometrium
B. Myometrium, Endometrium, Perimetrium
C. Endometrium, Perimetrium, Myometrium
D. Perimetrium, Endometrium, Myometrium
Solution: If a person is studying the uterine walls from outside to inside, the correct sequence will be: perimetrium, myometrium and endometrium. Hence, the correct option is a.
Ques:- Determine the layer of ovary from the following given layers.
B. Germinal epithelium
Solution: Germinal epithelium is the outer layer of an ovary. It is surrounded by cuboidal germinal epithelial cells. Hence, the correct option is b.
Ques:- Recognise the different parts of the fallopian tube in the given figure.
Solution: The given figure represents the structure of the fallopian tube.
Ques:- Which of the following layers sheds off during the menstrual cycle?
B. Germinal epithelium
D. Tunica albuginea
FAQs of Female Reproductive System
Ques:- Which ligaments support and hold the female reproductive organs within the pelvic cavity?
Solution: The various ligaments that support and hold the female reproductive organs in place within the pelvic cavity are enlisted below:
Ques:- What are the two main functions of the fallopian tube?
Solution: The fallopian tube is primarily involved in the transportation of sperms and also provide site for fertilisation
Solution: Hilum is the point in each ovary from where blood vessels and nerves enter and exit the ovary.
Ques:- Which organ is responsible for implantation of blastocyst?
Solution: The uterus is a hollow and muscular organ that provides a site for the implantation of blastocyst. Therefore, it is also referred to as womb or hystera.