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Properties of X-Rays- Its Applications, X-ray Absorption, Solved Examples, FAQs

Properties of X-Rays- Its Applications, X-ray Absorption, Solved Examples, FAQs

X-rays are used for a wide range of reasons, from medical to industrial. It may be used in a variety of ways due to its unique qualities. One of the most common uses of X-ray is as a scanner to scan travellers' luggage in airports, train terminals, and other locations. The characteristics of X-rays and their uses will be discussed in this article.

Table of Contents

  • Properties of X-ray
  • Applications of X-ray
  • X-ray Absorption
  • Solved Examples
  • FAQs

Properties of X-ray

  • X-rays are electromagnetic radiations that move at the speed of light () in a straight line.
  • They are extremely penetrating rays that can penetrate a variety of materials that are opaque to conventional light.
  • They ionise the gas they travel through. They knock off electrons from many neutral atoms as they move through the atmosphere, leaving these atoms with a positive charge.
  • Fluorescence is caused by them in a variety of materials. When exposed to X-rays, a plate covered with barium platinocyanide, ZnS, or other materials glows.
  • They have an impact on photographic plates.
  • Electric and magnetic forces do not deflect them, indicating that they are not charged particles.
  • Except for refraction, they display all of the characteristics of waves. When passed through a crystal that acts like a grant, they produce diffraction patterns.

Applications of X-ray

X-rays are crucial and useful in surgery, medicine, engineering, and crystal structure research.

1. Scientific Applications:

Diffraction of X-rays at crystals gave X-ray crystallography a whole new dimension. The interior structure of crystals is determined using a variety of diffraction patterns. Bragg's Law may be used to precisely calculate the spacing and locations of atoms in a crystal.

2. Industrial Applications:

X-rays are employed in industry to identify faults in metallic constructions of large machinery, railway tracks, and bridges since they can penetrate many materials. The composition of alloys and pearls is studied using X-rays.

3. Radiotherapy:

X-rays have the potential to harm the body's tissues (cells are ionised and molecules are broken). When employed at proper and controlled intensities, X-rays harm malignant growths such as cancer and tumours, which are life-threatening.

4. Medicine and Surgery:

Heavy elements absorb more X-rays than lighter elements. Because bones absorb more X-rays than the tissues around them. On the photographic plate, their shadow is cast. As a result, bone breaks or fractures may be easily identified. X-rays can also reveal abnormalities in the bowel and digestive tract.

X-Ray Absorption

The energy descending per second per unit area perpendicular to the direction of energy flow may be described as X-ray intensity at any location. An X-ray beam's intensity drops as it passes through a sheet of any material. The absorption of X-rays by the substance causes a reduction in X-ray intensity.

Let be the intensity of incident beam and be the intensity of beam after penetrating a thickness of a material, then 

Where, is the coefficient of absorption of material.


The wavelength of X-rays, the density of the material, and the atomic number of the substance all influence the absorption coefficient. High-atomic-mass and high-density elements absorb X-rays more effectively.

Solved Examples

Q. Out of the following, which one has the least wavelength?

Visible light, Ultraviolet, X-rays, Infrared waves

A. Out of these X-rays have the least wavelength and highest frequency. Because of that, X-rays are more energetic.

Q. How can we increase the penetrating power of X-rays?

A. In an X-ray tube by increasing the potential difference between cathode and anode we can increase the penetrating power of X-rays. 

Q. X-ray beam of intensity falls on a surface and penetrate a distance then find the intensity of beam if coefficient of absorption is ?

A.

Q. When X-rays incident on metal then?

a. Exert force on it
b. Transfers energy to it
c. Transfers pressure to it
d. All of the above

A. (d) when X-rays incident on metal surface it exerts force and pressure on it and transfers its energy to metal.

FAQs

Q. Which organ requires the most X-ray exposure?
A. The spine requires the most X-ray exposure. To achieve the right picture, the spine is exposed for 0.20 seconds.

Q. Can X-rays be captured anywhere?
A. X-rays can be captured on a silver halide-coated plate. When silver halide plates are subjected to heat, they begin to become black, resulting in X-ray pictures.

Q. What is the smallest distance that an X-ray may be taken?
A. The lowest distance at which an X-ray may be taken is 50 metres.

Q. How may X-rays be used to improve security?
A. In airports, train terminals, and other locations, X-rays are employed as a scanner to scan travellers' luggage.

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