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NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 4 - Animal Kingdom

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After in-depth learning of the plant kingdom, comes the turn of the animal kingdom to explain itself to the students. Since birth, we all have been seeing different animals, in different forms, living in different structures and conditions. To date, more than a million animal species have been found and described that has made classification even more essential to understand the nature and type of the animals.

Therefore, to thoroughly teach the students about the animal kingdom, this chapter has been included in the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology where the Basis of Classification, How Classification of Animals is done, and other relevant topics have been discussed. This classification is also required to correctly assign a systematic position to the freshly discovered species of animals. These are the topics described in this chapter:

  • Basis of Classification

A few fundamental attributes about cell organization, nature coelom, body symmetry, circulatory pattern, digestion pattern, or the pattern of the reproductive system are commonly found in various living organisms. These common fundamental attributes serve as the basis upon which animals are classified, and these attributes have been elaborated in this section.

  • Classification of Animals

The Kingdom Animalia's basic classification is done based on Diploblastic and Triploblastic Organization, Symmetry, Segmentation, Notochord, and Coelom. These topics will impart core knowledge about various categories of animals.

Q1. What are the difficulties that you would face in the classification of animals if common fundamental features are not taken into account?
Answer: The fundamental characteristics are basically used to establish relationships between animals while specific characteristics show us how animals despite having similar fundamental characteristics differ from each other. For example, all animals lack a cell wall and are heterotrophs, these are the fundamental characters that put all animals together in kingdom Animalia. However, the presence of mammary glands is a specific character that differentiates mammals from other vertebrates and animals. If common fundamental features are not taken into account then:
1. The inter-relationship among different animals will not be traceable.
2. The picture of all animals at a glance will not be projected.
3. We won't be able to get a clear picture of how evolution occurred.

Q2. How useful is the study of the nature of the body cavity and coelom in the classification of animals?
Answer: The fluid-filled body cavity derived and lined by mesoderm is called coelom. The study of the nature of the body cavity and coelom is useful because it plays a prominent role in the classification of animals. The animals bearing a coelom are called coelomate while those lacking coeloms are called acoelomate. A different type of coelom is also found in animals that are derived from blastocoel or blastula which, unlike a coelom, is not completely lined with mesodermal cells is called pseudocoelom. This coelom is not lined by mesoderm. The coelomates include annelids, mollusks, arthropods, echinoderms, and chordates. Aschelminthes are pseudocoelomates. Acoelomates are poriferans, cnidarians, ctenophores, and Platyhelminthes.


Q3. Distinguish between intracellular and extracellular digestion?
Answer: The differences between intracellular and extracellular digestion are as follows-
 

On the basis of 

Intracellular digestion

Extracellular digestion

Definition

The process of digestion of food takes place inside the cells.

The process of digestion of food takes place outside the cells in the alimentary canal.

Enzymatic action

Only a few enzymes are involved in the process of digestion.

A number of enzymes are involved in extracellular digestion.

Site of action

The products of digestion are diffused into the cytoplasm.

The products of digestion across the intestinal wall into the body parts.

Cell type

Mostly seen in unicellular animals.

Mostly seen in multicellular animals.

 

 

Q4. What is the difference between direct and indirect development?
Answer: The differences between direct and indirect development are as follows-

 

On the basis of 

Direct development

Indirect development

Definition

In this type of development, an embryo develops into a young one without any intermediate larval stage.

In this type of development, an embryo develops into a young one with some intermediate larval stages.

Resemblance 

Young ones resemble adults.

Young ones do not resemble adults.

Found in 

Seen in fishes, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

Seen in invertebrates and amphibians.

 

Q5. What are the peculiar features that you find in parasitic Platyhelminthes?
Answer: Platyhelminthes are mostly parasites. The peculiar features of Platyhelminthes are as follows:
1. The body of Platyhelminthes is covered by thick body covering i.e. tegument. It protects the animal from the action of the digestive enzymes of the host.
2. The body of Platyhelminthes is dorsoventrally flattened.
3. Platyhelminthes possess adhesive structures such as suckers and hookers that are helpful in deriving nutrition from the host body.
4. Locomotory organs are absent.
5. The reproductive system is well developed. Mostly they are hermaphrodites.

Q6. What are the reasons that you can think of for the arthropods to constitute the largest group of the animal kingdom?
Answer: The reasons for arthropods being the largest group of animals are as follows:
1. Presence of tough cuticles for protection of the body. It also helps in tolerating diverse terrestrial conditions.
2. Presence of striated muscles for quick movements.
3. Tracheal respiration for direct supply of oxygen as in insects.
4. Presence of jointed appendages for performing diverse functions
5. Well-developed nervous system and sense organs.
6. Presence of pheromones for communication.

Q7. What are the reasons that you can think of for the arthropods to constitute the largest group of the animal kingdom?
Answer: The reasons for arthropods being the largest group of animals are as follows:
1. Presence of tough cuticle for protection of the body. It also helps in tolerating diverse terrestrial conditions.
2. Presence of striated muscles for quick movements
3. Tracheal respiration for direct supply of oxygen as in insects
4. Presence of jointed appendages for performing diverse functions
5. Well-developed nervous system and sense organs.
6. Presence of pheromones for communication 

Q8. Water vascular system is the characteristic of which group of the following:
(a)Porifera
(b) Ctenophora
(c) Echinodermata
(d) Chordata
Answer: (c) Echinodermata
- The water vascular system is a characteristic feature of echinoderms that help in locomotion, respiration, and capturing of food.

Q9. "All vertebrates are chordates but all chordates are not vertebrates ." Justify the statement.
Answer: Phylum Chordata includes animals characterized by the presence of notochord. This phylum includes the subphylum Urochordata, Cephalochordata, and Vertebrata. In Vertebrates, the notochord is replaced by the vertebral columns, in urochordates and cephalochordates the vertebral column is absent. Thus, all vertebrates are chordates but all chordates are not vertebrates as they can be urochordates and cephalochordates also.

Q10. How important is the presence of air bladder in Pisces?
Answer: The air bladder is found to be present in the members of class Osteichthyes while it is absent in Chondrichthyes. The main function of the air bladder is to regulate buoyancy and help the fish to float in the water. It also prevents them from sinking in the water.
Since Chondrichthyes do not have air bladders they have to swim continuously to avoid sinking.

Q11. What are the modifications that are observed in birds that help them fly?
Answer: Modifications in birds to help them fly are as follows:
1. The bones of birds are pneumatic. These contain air cavities making the bones light. This feature helps the birds in flying.
2. The body of birds is streamlined offering the least resistance while flying.
3. Flight muscles are well developed.
4. Forelimbs of birds are modified into wings to allow flying. Hindlimbs are used for walking, perching, etc.
5. Additional air sacs are present to supplement respiration.

Q12.Could the no. of eggs or young ones produced by an oviparous and viviparous mother be equal?
Answer: No, the number of eggs produced in oviparous animals and young ones in viviparous animals are not equal. It is because oviparous animals lay eggs outside the body of females in water, land, etc. So, these eggs do not get the conditions that are necessary for the development and hatching of the eggs. Thus, due to the lack of parental care, the total number of eggs produced has fewer chances of survival. To compensate for this loss many eggs are produced.
On the other hand, the embryos of viviparous animals are inside the body of a female and they get proper nourishment and conditions necessary for their growth and development. Even after they are born, they are provided with parental care. So, the chances of survival are high and only a few young ones could be supported.

Q13. Segmentation in the body is first observed in which of the following:
(a) Platyhelminthes
(b) Aschelminthes
(c) Annelida

(d) Arthropoda
Answer: Annelida was the first segmented organism in the animal kingdom.

Q14. Match the following:
(a) Operculum       (i) Ctenophora
(b) Parapodia        (ii) Mollusca
(c) Scales              (iii) Porifera
(d) Comb plates     (iv) Reptilia
(e) Radula              (v) Annelida
(f) Hairs                 (vi) Cyclostomata and Chondrichthyes
(g) Choanocytes      (vii) Mammalia
(h) Gill slits               (viii) Osteichthyes
Answer: (a)-(viii), (b)-(v), (c)-(iv), (d)-(i), (e)-(ii), (f)- (vii), (g)- (iii), (h)- (vi)
(a) Operculum —> (viii) Osteichthyes
- Osteichthyes have gills that are covered with the operculum.
(b) Parapodia   —> (v) Annelida
- Parapodia are the locomotory organs in annelida.
(c) Scales  —> (iv) Reptilia
- Scales are the exoskeleton that covers the body of reptilia.
(d) Comb plates  —> (i) Ctenophora
- There are almost eight comb plates which are characteristic features found in Ctenophora.
(e) Radula  —>  (ii) Mollusca
- The radula is unique to the mollusks and is found in every class of mollusk except the bivalves, which instead use cilia, waving filaments that bring minute organisms to the mouth.
(f) Hairs   —> (vii)  Mammalia 
- Mammalian bodies are covered with hairs. The most important function of hair in mammals is that of insulating against the cold by conserving body heat. 

(g) Choanocytes  —> (iii) Porifera
- Choanocytes have finger-like structured walls, these line the internal canals of Porifera which helps to create a flow of water and also help to capture the food items.
(h) Gill slits  —> (vi) Cyclostomata and Chondrichthyes
- Gill slits are the respiratory organs in Cyclostomata and Chondrichthyes.

Q15. Prepare a list of some animals that are found parasitic on human beings.
Answer: Taenia ( Tapeworm), Ascaris (roundworm), Ancylostoma (hookworm), Enterobius (pinworm), and Wuchereria (filarial worm)

 

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Also See    
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 1 - The Living World NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 - Biological Classification NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 - Plant Kingdom
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 5 - Morphology of Flowering Plants NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 - Anatomy of Flowering Plants NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 7 - Structural Organization in Animals
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 - Cells: The Unit of Life NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 9 - Biomolecules NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 10 - Cell Cycle and Division
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 - Transport in Plants NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 12 - Mineral Nutrition NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 13 - Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 14 - Respiration in Plants NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 15 - Plant Growth and Development NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 16 - Digestion and Absorption
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 17 - Breathing and Exchange of Gases NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 18 - Body Fluids and Circulation NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 19 - Excretory Products and their Elimination
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 20 - Locomotion and Movement NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 21 - Neural Control and Coordination NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 - Chemical Coordination and Integration

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