agra,ahmedabad,ajmer,akola,aligarh,ambala,amravati,amritsar,aurangabad,ayodhya,bangalore,bareilly,bathinda,bhagalpur,bhilai,bhiwani,bhopal,bhubaneswar,bikaner,bilaspur,bokaro,chandigarh,chennai,coimbatore,cuttack,dehradun,delhi ncr,dhanbad,dibrugarh,durgapur,faridabad,ferozpur,gandhinagar,gaya,ghaziabad,goa,gorakhpur,greater noida,gurugram,guwahati,gwalior,haldwani,haridwar,hisar,hyderabad,indore,jabalpur,jaipur,jalandhar,jammu,jamshedpur,jhansi,jodhpur,jorhat,kaithal,kanpur,karimnagar,karnal,kashipur,khammam,kharagpur,kochi,kolhapur,kolkata,kota,kottayam,kozhikode,kurnool,kurukshetra,latur,lucknow,ludhiana,madurai,mangaluru,mathura,meerut,moradabad,mumbai,muzaffarpur,mysore,nagpur,nanded,narnaul,nashik,nellore,noida,palwal,panchkula,panipat,pathankot,patiala,patna,prayagraj,puducherry,pune,raipur,rajahmundry,ranchi,rewa,rewari,rohtak,rudrapur,saharanpur,salem,secunderabad,silchar,siliguri,sirsa,solapur,sri-ganganagar,srinagar,surat,thrissur,tinsukia,tiruchirapalli,tirupati,trivandrum,udaipur,udhampur,ujjain,vadodara,vapi,varanasi,vellore,vijayawada,visakhapatnam,warangal,yamuna-nagar

Electronic Configuration

Imagine living in a lawless and unstructured environment where your belongings are scattered throughout your house. Finding your possession would be an absolute nightmare, would it not ?

Would you not prefer to live in an orderly fashion. Thats the same notion on which scientists clubbed all known elements into a periodic table where they could study the physical and chemical properties and try to find some resemblance. For example, we know generally group 18 elements are inert in nature but noble gases having higher atomic mass like Kr, Xe and Rn form some compounds 

(KrF2, XeF6, RnF2. From this information, can it be guessed whether O ganesson (Og) (Z =118) can also form compounds?

Electrons determine the chemical behavior of an atom. The electronic configuration of atoms is very useful in understanding the periodic table, their chemical and physical behaviour, etc. A set of rules are defined to write the correct electronic configuration of any element but only mathematical interpretation is not science. 

Table of contents

What is Electronic Configuration?

Electrons are filled in orbitals of an element under a set of  parameters dependent on energy, spin orientation and indistinguishability of electrons.

Prerequisites of Writing Electronic Configurations

  • Aufbau's principle
  • Pauli’s exclusion principle
  • Hund’s rule for maximum multiplicity

Electronic Configuration of Elements

image

 

image

 

Rules to Write Condensed Electronic Configuration or Noble Gas Configuration

  • Electrons are filled in valence or outermost shell according to given order

image

Example: Write the condensed electronic configuration of flerovium (Fl114)

Answer: We know, the last element of period 6 is Rn86.

114-86 = 28 only we have arranged 28 electrons in their valence, penultimate & anti-penultimate shells according to increasing (n+1)rule

This element belongs to period 7 because period 6 is completely filled and the last element of period 7 is

image

Subshell n l (n+1) Preference Rank Maximum capacity of electron Actual number of electrons
7s 7 0 7 1 2 2
7p 7 1 8 4 6 2
6d 6 2 8 3 10 10
5f 5 3 8 2 14 14

Note: subshells having same (n+1) value, subshell with the lower value of n is preferred

image

Few Examples of Condensed Electronic Configurations 

image

Rules to Identify Group Number, Period Number & Block Name of Elements

  • Period number: Value of n (principal quantum number) of valence shell or outermost shell decide the number of period of element

image

  • Block name: The last electron enters in which subshell, elements generally belongs to that block

Eg.  image

  • Group number: Generally, the group number is decided by the number of valence electrons or valence electrons and electrons of the penultimate shell.
  1. For s block elements- the group number is equal to the number of valence electrons(n).
  2. For p block elements- the group number is equal to the number of valence electrons (n)+ 10.
  3. For d block elements- the group number is equal to the number of valence electrons(n) + number of electrons in the penultimate shell (n-1) d orbital.

E.g  

image

 

Exceptional Electronic Configurations

These configurations are not an exception of chemistry but the exception of only (n+1) theory. We can’t predict nature with an equation of simple mathematics. These configurations are written on the basis of their practical behavior measured in the lab. To satisfy those lab results we write arrangements of electrons that slightly deviates from (n+1) rule.

image

Practice Problems on Electronic Configuration

Question 1. Predict the group number, period number & block name respectively of elements (moscovium) having an atomic number 115

(A). 13, 6 & s block
(B). 14, 7 & p block
(C). 15, 7 & p block
(D). 16, 7 & d block

Answer: (C)

We know, the last element of period 6 is Rn86.

115-86 = 29 only we have arranged 29 electrons in their valence, penultimate & antepenultimate shells according to increasing (n+1) rule

This element belongs to period 7 because period 6 is completely filled and the last element of period 7 is Og118

So, n = 7, (n-1) = 6 and (n-2) =5

Subshell n l (n+1) Preference Rank Maximum capacity of electron Actual number of electrons
7s 7 0 7 1 2 2
7p 7 1 8 4 6 3
6d 6 2 8 3 10 10
5f 5 3 8 2 14 14

Note: subshells having same (n+1) value, subshell with the lower value of n is preferred

image

Block name = p block (last electron enter’s in p subshell)

Group number = 10 + 5 = 15

Period number = 7

Question 2. Predict the group number, period number & block name respectively of elements having an atomic number 69. 

(A). 3, 6 & s block
(B). 3, 6 & f block
(C). 14, 6 & p block
(D). 13, 6 & d block

Answer: (B)

 Writing electronic configuration and finding its group number and the period number is not a good approach.

In these types of questions always remember the given element is Lanthanide or actinide or not. It will save your time

Lanthanide: Ce58 to Lu71 (all elements belong to group 3, period 6, and f block)

Actinides: Th90 to Lr103 (all elements belong to group 3, period 7, and f block)

Question 3. Find the number of electrons in the penultimate shell of chromium. 

(A). 1
(B). 13
(C). 2
(D). 5

Answer: (B)

image

Question 4. Find the number of electrons in the ‘L’ shell of calcium (Sc21). 

(A). 2
(B). 8
(C). 9
(D). 5

Answer: (C)

 


image

 

FAQ's on Electronic Configuration

Question 1. Why electronic configuration of Palladium is image instead of image?

Answer: Arrangements of electrons are based on elements natural behavior 

Case 1: image, number of unpaired electrons = 2

Case 2: image, number of unpaired electrons = 0

In these cases due to different numbers of unpaired electrons their magnetic behavior can be changed. In the case of fully paired electrons, it behaves as diamagnetic and in the case of unpaired electrons, it behaves as paramagnetic.

Question 2. Does Actinium (Ac86) belong to f block elements?

Answer: Actually, Actinium should be a d-block element, due to its close resemblance with Actinides. So, usually included in all discussions of the lanthanides.

Question 3. Is there any element in the d block which has zero electrons in its valence subshells?

Answer: Yes, pd46image

Question 4. How many elements in the 4d series don’t follow (n+1) rule and have exceptional configurations?

Answer: elements having exceptional configurations:

4d series ( Y to Cd)- Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag (only Y, Zr and Cd follow (n+1)rule)

Related topics:

Isotopes Isobars, Isotones & Isodiaphers Discovery of neutron
Rutherford atomic model Thompson’s Atomic Model
Atomic number and Mass number Quantum numbers

 

Talk to our expert
By submitting up, I agree to receive all the Whatsapp communication on my registered number and Aakash terms and conditions and privacy policy