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Food Production Types and Methods

Food production refers to the process of conversion of raw materials into finished food products. All these finished food or converted food items can be either used in homes or food processing industries. Food is required by the human body to continue its basic life processes, provide nutrition and energy.

Most of the raw materials and food are obtained from plants and animals. These plants and animals are responsible for supplying almost 90% of the food for the world. Different food and raw materials extracted include grains, honey, meat, dairy products, vegetables and fruits.

Importance of Food production

  • The food production industry employs a major chunk of the population
  • A source of income for a majority of the population.
  • Increases export and helps in maintaining foreign relations

Steps of Food Production

The process of food production involves three major steps, namely-

  • Input
  • Processing
  • Output

Input refers to the different raw materials required for the process of food production. Processing is the process of converting raw ingredients into edible form. And the output is the final product produced.

Categories of Food Production

Food production is classified into different categories: cultivation, harvesting, crop management, preservation, fermentation, crop production, cooking at restaurants, broiling, grilling, and baking.

Methods of Food Production

There are various methods of food production, and those include

  • Fruit juice processing and Preservation
  • Chopping,
  • Pasteurization,
  • Slicing of vegetables
  • Steaming,
  • Grilling,
  • Curing food,
  • Frying,
  • Grinding and marinating,
  • Broiling,
  • Emulsification,
  • Boiling,
  • Fermentation of food and beer and many more

The food system refers to the food chain that begins with raw materials and ends with the consumption of final food products. This food system comprises seven stages that are given below.

  • 1. Food Production: It includes agriculture and farming
  • 2. Distribution and aggregation: Distribution of different types of plants and meat.
  • 3. Food processing: Process of conversion of raw materials into edible food items.
  • 4. Marketing: Advertisements and selling of the processed food items.
  • 5. Purchasing: Buying processed food from different sources like shops.
  • 6. Consumption: Consumption of the processed food.
  • 7. Waste Recovery: Managing the waste food item and its recovery.

It is important to ensure that the output is maximum with minimum input and wastage. It can be done by food production management. It is the process of managing and optimizing food production. The tasks of food production managers include the following:

  • Purchase of raw materials and ingredients
  • Hiring professionals like chefs and waiters
  • Creating Budgets
  • Planning and creating menus
  • Ensuring the quality of food preparation is top-notch
  • Maintaining cleanliness and infrastructure
  • Regulating wastage and its disposal
  • Maintaining operational records
  • Handling customers
  • Managing the inventory

In a nutshell, food production management is the development and implementation of different plans and systems that can control and manage different parts of the food system. It ensures that all the pieces are in place and perfect order is being followed. The different institutes that form the food management system are restaurants, cafes, hotels, and other food production and management institutions.

Role of Food Production in the Economy

In the Indian context, food production and industry plays an important role in the economy. Food production is responsible for earning bread and butter for various people and industries like restaurants, online food delivery apps, grocery stores, agriculture, chefs, waiters, local vendors and local food markets etc., contribute to the same. A huge portion of India's economy comes only from agriculture, and some of the reasons are given below:

  • In 2017-18, more than 275 tonnes of food was produced in India
  • India is one of the biggest producers and suppliers of milk, jute, cotton and pulses.
  • Nearly 60% of India’s workforce is in agriculture.

So far, it may seem like food production is beneficial. But like every coin has two sides, even food production has its effects on the environment. Some of them are given below:

  • It is a causal agent for climate change
  • Agriculture and farming causes water pollution
  • Food production causes greenhouse gas emissions. Nearly 26% of the greenhouse gases are produced due to food production.
  • It has caused the extinction of many species
  • The pesticides and chemicals used during agriculture cause soil pollution.

Although food production affects the environment, it is still very important as it helps develop many countries. And also, without this, access to food will be difficult. Therefore, a plausible solution can be practising sustainable food production, as it will contribute less to damaging the environment.





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