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Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal System: Arthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis, Myasthenia Gravis, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Gouty Arthritis, Sprains and strains, Practice Problems and FAQs

Ever noticed that our grandparents often experience pain in arms and legs? 

As we grow older, our bones and muscles also become old which results in causing various muscular and skeletal disorders. These disorders are more common during old age, although some may occur during the adult stage of life as well. 

Pain in joints

What are different muscular and skeletal disorders seen in humans? What are its causes and symptoms? 

Come, let's find out answers to these questions.

Table of contents:

Causes

Arthritis

Arthritis is the inflammation of joints caused by the wearing away of articulating cartilage and hence causing increased friction between the bones. This causes damage to the bones, inflammation of the joints and the condition worsens at older age.

Symptoms

Common symptoms of arthritis include joint pain and stiffness at the joints.

Joint pain in arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis

Causes

While arthritis is a common term used to describe a joint disorder, rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease wherein the immune system of the body causes inflammation to the synovial membrane (provides lubrication to the joints) of the bone. The inflamed synovial membrane thickens and produces more synovial fluid in this case. 

Symptoms

Symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis include swelling, inflammation and pain in the joints.

Osteoporosis

Causes

It is an age related condition. It is caused when the body loses too much bone as compared to the formation of bones. Decrease in estrogen is one of the main reasons for loss of bone mass.

Osteoporosis

Symptoms

Easy breakage of bones and increased chances of fractures are some of the common symptoms of osteoporosis.

Osteoarthritis

Causes

It is an age related disorder which is caused due to wearing away of cartilage in bones.

Symptoms

Symptoms of osteoarthritis include pain and stiffness in joints.

Myasthenia gravis

Causes

It is an autoimmune disorder and is caused when the immune system attacks its own body.

Symptoms

It is a neuromuscular long term condition which mainly affects eyes and face with following symptoms:

  • Weakness in skeletal muscles.
  • Double vision - Seeing two images of the same object.
  • Drooping eyelids.
  • Trouble in walking and talking.

Myasthenia gravis

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Causes

It is a genetically inherited disorder which is caused due to progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles.

Muscular dystrophy

Symptoms

It results in deterioration of tissues and muscles overtime. It damages muscles hence causing difficulty in walking, swallowing and breathing.

Symptom of muscular dystrophy

Gouty arthritis

Causes

Gouty arthritis is inflammation of joints caused due to accumulation of uric acid crystals resulting in inflammation of joints. A condition called hyperuricemia which is the presence of excessive levels of uric acids in the body causes gouty arthritis. Formation of uric acids in the body occurs by the breakdown of purines found in food and our body.

Symptoms

Common symptoms of gouty arthritis are pain, redness and swelling in joints.

Gouty arthritis

Sprains and strains

Causes

Sprain is a ligamentous injury caused due to excessive stretching and twisting while strain is a muscular injury caused by overstretching or tearing of tendons or muscles.

Symptoms

Symptoms of strain and sprain include difficulty in movement, pain, redness and swelling.

Practice Problems

Question1. Which of the following is a correct match?

A. Sprain - Muscular injury
B. Strain - Ligamentous injury
C. Arthritis - Inflammation of joints
D. Myasthenia gravis - Accumulation of uric acids in joints

Solution: Arthritis is inflammation of joints caused by the wearing away of articulating cartilage and hence causing increased friction between the bones. This causes damage to the bones, inflammation of the joints and the condition worsens at older age. Hence, the correct option is c.

Question2. Which of the following disorders is shown in the given picture?

injury

A. Sprain
B. Gouty arthritis
C. Osteoarthritis
D. Myasthenia gravis

Solution: The given picture shows accumulation of uric acid in bones. Gouty arthritis is inflammation of joints caused due to accumulation of uric acid crystals resulting in inflammation of joints. A condition called hyperuricemia which is the presence of excessive levels of uric acids in the body causes gouty arthritis. Formation of uric acids in the body occurs by the breakdown of purines found in food and our body. Hence, the correct option is b.

Question3. Ankita’s grandmother was diagnosed with a skeletal disorder. The doctor explained to Ankita that her grandmother is losing bone mass which is weakening her bones and thus, this will increase the chances of fracture. Ankita’s grandmother is diagnosed with which of the following disorders?

A. Osteoarthritis
B. Muscular dystrophy
C. Tetany
D. Osteoporosis 

Solution: Loss of bone mass and increased chances of fracture are observed in a skeletal disorder called osteoporosis. It is an age related condition. It is caused when the body loses too much bone as compared to the formation of bones. Decrease in estrogen is one of the main reasons for loss of bone mass. Hence, the correct option is d.

Question4. Which of the following is true in context with rheumatoid arthritis?

A. It is an autoimmune disorder
B. It forms pore in the bones
C. It is caused by excessive twisting and stretching of the body
D. None of the above

Solution: Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease wherein the immune system of the body causes inflammation to the synovial membrane (provides lubrication to the joints) of the bone. Hence, the correct option is a.

FAQs

Question1. How is rheumatoid arthritis different from arthritis?

Solution: While arthritis is a common term used to describe a joint disorder, rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease wherein the immune system of the body causes inflammation to the synovial membrane (provides lubrication to the joints) of the bone.

Question2. What is gouty arthritis? Mention causes and symptoms?

Solution: Gouty arthritis is inflammation of joints caused due to accumulation of uric acid crystals resulting in inflammation of joints. A condition called hyperuricemia which is the presence of excessive levels of uric acids in the body causes gouty arthritis. Formation of uric acids in the body occurs by the breakdown of purines found in food and our body. Common symptoms of gouty arthritis are pain, redness and swelling in joints.

Question3. Mention a difference between sprain and strain?

Solution: Sprain is a ligamentous injury caused due to excessive stretching and twisting while strain is a muscular injury caused by overstretching or tearing of tendons or muscles.

Question4. Name three locomotory disorders along with its causes?

Solution: Locomotory disorders are disorders of the skeletal system and muscles which hinder the normal movement of the body. Some of the locomotory disorders are as follows:

  • Myasthenia gravis - It is an autoimmune disorder and is caused when the immune system attacks its own body.
  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy - It is a genetically inherited disorder which is caused due to progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles.
  • Osteoarthritis - It is an age related disorder which is caused due to wearing away of cartilage in bones.

Related Topics to Disorders of muscular and skeletal system in Bioloy

 

NCERT Biology Class 11 Chapters

 

The Living World Biological Classification Plant Kingdom
Animal Kingdom Morphology of Flowering Plants Anatomy of Flowering Plants
Structural Organization in Animals Cells: The Unit of Life Biomolecules
Cell Cycle and Division Transport in Plants Mineral Nutrition
Photosynthesis in Higher Plants Respiration in Plants Plant Growth and Development
Digestion and Absorption Breathing and Exchange of Gases Body Fluids and Circulation
Excretory Products and their Elimination Locomotion and Movement Neural Control and Coordination
Chemical Coordination and Integration
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