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Law of Segregation and Law of Dominance

What is the Law of Segregation?

The Law of segregation states that there are two identical pairs of every genetic factor segregated during the production and development of a gamete to ensure that each offspring contains one factor of the parent body. This law can also be defined in another way. When the gamete is being developed, each gene is separated and segregated so that every gamete contains only one allele for that particular gene.

  • Genes- Genes are an important part of your DNA that enables a specific trait in your personality.
  • Allele- An allele is a specific form of a gene that provides diversity in the qualities given by a gene to a person.

What is the Law of Dominance?

The Law of dominance states that when a heterozygous pair of alleles is inherited, the trait or allele expressed is called dominant, and the trait or allele that is not expressed is called recessive.

This law can also be defined differently. For example, when two distinct genes cross over together to form a new hybrid, only one of the traits will be expressed. This situation where only one of the alleles is dominant explains the law mentioned above.

The Law of segregation has certain properties that are applicable at all times.

Properties of Law of segregation

  • This law is the first phase of meiotic cell division. The homologous chromosomes have two similar pairs of the same gene and are divided accordingly into their respective daughter nuclei.
  • The available gene is free to exist in one or more forms or alleles. In addition, there is no restriction on the number of times one gene can exist.
  • Every organism inherits two forms of genes or alleles for every required trait.
  • During meiosis, sex cells are produced. Then, these allelic pairs get separated, leaving each cell with one allele for a particular trait.
  • When there are two different and unique alleles of a pair, one trait is dominant, and one is recessive.
  • The gametes combine together by a random way of fusion at the time of zygote formation.
  • This Law of Segregation uses a Punnet square to determine the resulting genotypic characters that an individual will inculcate.

Law of dominance

The Law of Dominance also has unique properties which are true at all times. These properties are mentioned below:

  • This law is known to be the first Law of heredity. This law proves that every trait inculcated in a person is controlled by distinct units called factors or genes.
  • This law is used the most when the gene pair contains alleles of two different kinds. Here only one of the traits is dominant and shown in an offspring.
  • Even though the recessive allele does not play any part in the personality trait, these alleles are also delivered to the body in the same way as the dominant traits is delivered.
  • Both of these alleles are brought together during the time of fertilization. Thus, one of the gametes is dominant, and the other is recessive.
  • This concept of dominating traits is only applicable in genotype characters and not applicable for phenotype characters of an individual.
  • The offspring of this fusion is called a heterozygote or a hybrid as it contains two unique jeans having distinct features in one pair of genes.

Genotype- The internal set of genes that are present in the organism is called genotype. This refers to the genetic constitution of an individual.
Phenotype- The observable characteristics which are genetically controlled in an organism is called the phenotype. This refers to the visible characteristics.

These laws of inheritance are essential and have certain applications:

  • The information provided by these laws gives us a good guess on the dominance and splitting of uncertain traits, which gives an idea of hybrids' progeny.
  • The knowledge given by this law is very important for plants and animal breeding as this can help them in producing hybrids of their demand. Furthermore, this helps in bringing new products of different animals and plants.
  • Hybridization allows the growth of new and advanced plants having the characteristics qualities that are filled with useful traits and advantages.

The Law of segregation and Law of dominance is extremely useful. They have a great advantage in the market for breeding purposes. Moreover, they have certain properties which are unique and intriguing.

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