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Difference between Compounds and Mixtures - Introduction, Compounds, Mixture, Difference, Practice Problems & FAQs

You must have attended a wedding ceremony. We all enjoy attending wedding functions. We love to get ready with dazzling outfits and the most important thing is the delicious food which we had there. You must have seen a corner where we found the salad. Salad is a combination of lots of fruits. We love eating salad as this is very healthy also and salt and chat powder make it yummier.

Wait, I will not explain much about that ‘salad’ but I am interested in explaining a term used in chemistry that is “mixture”. When two or more substances come together physically rather than chemically, a mixture is created. Here salad is the best example to describe a mixture. We add salt to the salad to make it taste yummier. This salt is the best example of a compound. A compound is anything created when two or more separate chemical elements are mixed together in a specific proportion. Table salt which we use is basically sodium chloride, combined in a specific proportion with sodium and chlorine.



In our surroundings, there are a lot of substances which we can easily classify under compounds and elements. Let’s study in detail about these important terms. We will easily be able to differentiate between compounds and mixtures. 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Introduction:

The three main divisions of matter are elements, mixture, and compounds. 

A sort of matter known as a pure substance has qualities that are constant throughout the sample and a stable composition that makes it the same wherever (meaning that there is only one set of properties such as melting point, colour, boiling point, etc. throughout the matter).

A mixture is a substance made up of two or more different substances. Pure substances include both elements and compounds. An element is a substance that cannot be divided into chemically less complex parts.

Learn about the distinctions between a compound and a mixture in this section.

Compound:

A compound is a material that results from the chemical combination of two or more elements while maintaining a consistent mass ratio. It comprises two or more elements as well as a variety of components that coexist in a stable atom-to-element ratio. As elements combine, their unique qualities deteriorate while the new result takes on a new product.

Chemical Formula: The compounds are symbolically represented by their chemical formula. It displays the proportion of atoms that make up a compound.

For example:

Calcium chloride is made up of two elements i.e., calcium and chlorine. Calcium being a metal of group II forms a divalent cation, . Chlorine is a halogen and forms chloride anion . Now we cross-over the valencies of calcium and chloride ions to obtain the final chemical formula of this compound. 

So, we get . This denotes the compound is made of two atoms of chlorine and one atom of calcium.


Normal salt has the chemical formula , whereas water has the formula .Water's chemical formula, , denotes that each water molecule has two hydrogen and one oxygen atom. Similar to this, the chemical formula of salt, "," denotes that each molecule of sodium chloride has one sodium atom and one chlorine atom.

Mixture:

When two or more substances mixed together without getting any kind of chemical changes, then it is said to be known as a mixture in chemistry.

Both the specific qualities and the chemical bondings of the constituent parts of a mixture are retained. They typically result in one product when chemicals or elements are combined chemically.


Properties of Mixtures:

Following is a list of mixtures' primary characteristics:

  • The original properties of a mixture are retained.
  • With the help of mechanical methods, it is simple to distinguish between a mixture's components.
  • The proportion of the components in mixtures is variable in nature.

Examples of Mixtures are mentioned below:

  • Seawater: A mixture which is a combination of various salts and water.


  • Crude oil: A mixture which has a combination of organic compounds (mainly hydrocarbons).
  • Ink: A mixture of various coloured dyes.
  • Air: a mixture of various gasses like oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, neon, etc.


  • Gunpowder: A mixture of potassium nitrate, sulfur, and carbon.

Types of Mixtures:

A general analogy of classification of mixture can be shown by the below image:


Heterogeneous mixture: A heterogeneous mixture is created when two different types of substances are combined, each of which has unique features.

Example: A mixture of water and sand .


Homogeneous mixture: A homogeneous mixture is created when two substances with comparable properties are combined in a way that results in uniformity throughout.

Example: A mixture of sugar and water


Difference between compound and mixture:

S. No. Differentiating Property Compound Mixture
1 Definition Compounds are those substances which can be created by the chemical combination of two or more elements. Mixtures are those substances that are created by a physical combination of two or more substances.
2 Types

Compounds can be categorized in three types. They are covalent, metallic and ionic compounds.

Note: Depending on whether carbon is included in the molecular structure, substances can be categorized as organic and inorganic.

Mixtures are basically of two types i.e. homogenous mixtures and heterogeneous mixtures.
3 Substance Category Compounds fall under the category of  pure substances. Mixtures can fall under the category of impure substances.
4 Composition Details Compounds' main composition is always constant. A mixture's main components can vary in composition.
5 Nature In nature, compounds are always homogeneous. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures are possible.
6 Separation of Constituents There are only two ways to separate a compound's components: chemically or electrochemically. Through physical separation techniques like filtering, mixtures can be broken down into their component parts. Therefore, separating mixtures is less difficult than separating individual molecules.
7 Properties Compounds have distinct characteristics that need not correspond to the individual constituent elements' characteristics. The attributes of a mixture are often the sum of the properties of its elements since the constituents of a mixture do not lose their properties when combined.
8 New Substance A new substance is formed after the constituents are chemically combined. So, a compound has different properties from its constituents. In mixtures, no new substances are created; instead, their properties depend on those of the individual constituents.
9 Melting and Boiling Points The melting and boiling points of a compound are always defined. A mixture's melting and boiling points are not specified.
10 Example Salt, Water, baking soda, etc. sand and water,Oil and water, smog (smoke + fog), etc.

Practice Problems:

Q1. The term ______ refers to substances whose compositions are not uniform and different components are mixed.

A. Heterogeneous substances

B. Homogeneous substances

C. Elements

D. Pure substances

Answer: A

Solution: A heterogeneous substance is one that contains several components mixed in an uneven way. A homogeneous mixture of substances is one that is consistent. A pure substance has a consistent makeup. whereas components consist of just one substance.

Q2. A _______ is composed of two or more pure materials in any combination.

A. Compound

B. Mixture

C. Element

D. Atom

Answer: B

Solution: A mixture is the combining of two pure things in any ratio. Its components are the pure substances that make up its constitution. The building block of life is the atom.

Q3. Milk comes under the category of _____________.

A. Heterogeneous mixture

B. Homogenous mixture

C. Compound

D. Pure substances

Answer: A

Solution: Because its various components are not evenly blended, milk is a heterogeneous mixture. When milk is put into a glass and fat globules rise to the top, these components can be seen.

4. Soda is considered as a form of ________________. 

A. Homogenous mixture

B. Compound

C. Heterogeneous mixture.

D. Pure substance.

Answer: A

Solution: The components of a homogeneous mixture are evenly distributed throughout, and in the case of soft drinks, components like sugar, carbon dioxide, and water combine to form a single phase. A soft drink is thus a homogeneous combination.

Frequently Asked Questions-FAQs:

1. Is vegetable oil considered as a compound?
Answer: Vegetable oil is an organic compound made from lipids, such as various types of fatty acids, and is obtained from seeds or other plant parts. The ratio of these fatty acids and their various characteristics give the various vegetable oils now in use their characteristics.

2. Why are mixes of petrol and water heterogeneous in nature?
Answer: Because its components may be seen independently and are not evenly dispersed across its volume, gasoline and water also make up a heterogeneous mixture.

3. There are two categories of matter: mixtures and pure substances. Is this statement true?

Answer: The matter is split into mixtures and pure substances at the bulk level. A sort of matter known as a pure substance has qualities and a steady composition throughout the sample. Physically combining two or more elements and/or compounds results in a mixture.

4. Chemical techniques can be used to separate compounds. Explain.
Answer: Compounds cannot be separated only physically; instead, chemical procedures are required because when components of a compound are mixed, their chemical formulae change and they combine to generate a new chemical formula that gives rise to the compound.

Related Topics:

Metals and non-metals Difference between atom and molecule
difference between vapor and gas Mixtures
Difference between compounds and mixtures Non metals

 

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