In our workplace or shed, we frequently group parts according to their shared characteristics. The screws might fit in a single container (possibly subdivided by size and type). Nuts storage would be another container. Perhaps there are some drawers for plumbing supplies.
You can also have a collection of items that don't neatly fall into any particular category. You describe what they are not in terms of what they are. They are not parts for a car, sprinkler heads for the lawn, or electrical components. These components come in a variety of forms, yet they may have some characteristics.
These "spares" would be classified as nonmetals in the chemical world, which is broadly defined as not having the properties of metals.
In this article, we will discuss in detail about non-metals, properties of non-metals and uses of non-metals.
Table of contents
Elements that gain electrons (while forming an electrovalent bond) or share electrons (while forming a covalent bond) are known as non-metals. In their outermost shell, they frequently include 4, 5, 6, or 7 electrons. Non-metals are substances lacking all the qualities of metals. A non-metal is an element that often conducts heat and electricity. Most of the non-metal qualities are the opposite of a metal's. Non-metals can be found in all three states of matter. Gases are in the majority like nitrogen, oxygen etc. Bromine non-metal is in the liquid state. Only a few of them are solids, like sulphur and carbon. Non-metals are fragile in the solid state, meaning that a hammer blow will cause them to break. The non-metals which are in a solid state don't have much lustre. The elements which are highlighted in green colour in the periodic table are non-metals.
On heating, non-metals generate oxides when they interact with oxygen. These oxides may be neutral or acidic in nature. They don't produce basic oxides. When non-metal oxides are dissolved in water, acids are produced.
Carbon dioxide is produced when carbon burns in the presence of excessive air and carbonic acid is formed when carbon dioxide dissolves in water.
C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g)
CO2 (g)+ H2O(l) → H2CO3(aq)
Non-metals typically don't combine with water to generate hydrogen gas. This is so because non-metals are unable to convert water's hydrogen ions into hydrogen gas. However, some non-metals with strong reactivity, like fluorine, react with water to produce oxygen or ozone molecules.
2F2 (g)+ 2H2O(g) → 4HF(l) + O2(g)
3F2(g) + 3H2O(g) → 6HF(l) + O3(g)
A much more reactive non-metal typically pushes a less reactive non-metal out of its salt solution.
An illustration of this is the formation of sodium chloride and bromine gas when chlorine gas is passed through a solution of sodium bromide.
Cl2(g) + 2NaBr(aq) → 2NaCl(aq)+ Br2(l)
Covalent chlorides are usually created when non-metals react with chlorine.
As an illustration, hydrogen and chlorine react to produce hydrogen chloride gas when exposed to scattered sunlight.
Cl2(g) + H2(g) → 2 HCl(g)
As an illustration, at 713 K, hydrogen combines with liquid sulphur to produce hydrogen sulphide gas.
H2(g) + S(g) → H2S(g)
Since non-metals do not remove hydrogen from acids, they do not combine with diluted acids. This is so that a nonmetal, which is an electron acceptor, cannot reduce hydrogen ions to hydrogen gas by supplying electrons to them.
With other atoms, non-metals frequently acquire or share electrons. They have an electronegative character. When non-metals interact with metals, they often gain electrons to acquire the stable electronic configuration of noble gas and transform it into anions.
3Cl2(g)+ 2Al (s)→ 2AlCl3(s)
Q1. Non-metals are:
(A) good oxidising agents
(B) good reducing agents
(C) both oxidising and reducing agents
(D) None of the above
Solution: Non-metals function as oxidising agents because they take up electrons in their outermost shell, and oxidise other elements. Non-metals are electronegative in nature and readily form anions due to their propensity to gain electrons. Non-metals have the ability to oxidise themselves by taking up electrons, making them good oxidising agents.
Q.2. Reaction of sulphur with oxygen forms:
(A) Acidic oxide
(B) Basic oxide
(C) Amphoteric oxide
(D) All of these
Solution: Sulphur dioxide is produced when sulphur reacts with the oxygen in the presence of excessive air and sulphurous acid is formed when sulphur dioxide dissolves in water.
Q.3. Out of the following options, which is an acidic oxide?
Solution: H2O, NO and CO are neutral oxides. Sulphur is a non-metal, producing sulphur trioxide (SO3) on reaction with oxygen which is an acidic oxide by nature. Sulphuric acid is formed when this oxide dissolves in water.
Q.4. The substance utilised in computers, televisions etc. because of its semiconductor qualities is:
Solution: Unique materials known as semiconductors have electrical conductivity value between insulators and conductors. Semi-conductors are made of pure silicon crystal. Due to its four valence electrons, silicon is ideal for creating this lattice structure since it can precisely connect to four of its silicon neighbours.
Q1. Why is oxygen categorised as a non-metal?
Answer: On Earth, oxygen has many unique and mystical qualities and uses. Because oxygen belongs to the chalcogen group on the periodic table, it is classified as a highly reactive non-metallic element. Without the photosynthetic function of living creatures, oxygen in its free state is chemically reactive and cannot exist on Earth. This process employs sunlight as a source of energy to create elemental oxygen from water.
Q2. How can we tell whether an element is a metal or a non-metal?
Answer: It is carried out based on its valency. When forming cations, metals may lose or give electrons. In their outermost shells, they have 1, 2 or 3 electrons. Giving away 1, 2 or 3 electrons makes it simpler for them to generate an entire octet than taking more than 4 electrons. Consequently, the charges on metals are +1, +2, +3. This type of behaviour is referred to as a metallic character.
Additionally, elements having 5, 6 and 7 electrons in their valence shell prefer to take electrons and form anions. Therefore anions attain charges of -3, -2 and -1 respectively. This type of behaviour is referred to as a non-metallic character.
Q3. Why are non-metals poor electrical conductors and metals good electrical conductors of electricity?
Answer: The majority of metals are effective electrical conductors. This occurs because the outermost electrons lose contact with their parent atoms when metal atoms unite with one another. While the outside electrons circulate freely throughout the entire metal crustal, the remaining positively charged atomic centres organise themselves into an ordered structure. Hence, metals are good conductors of electricity.
The nucleus of non-metals, on the other hand, securely holds the conduction electrons. As a result, they are immobile. Because they lack free electrons, non-metals are therefore regarded as weak electrical conductors.
Q4. What are Metalloids?
Answer: The characteristics of metalloids are in-between those of metals and non-metals. The semiconductor industry can benefit from metalloids. At normal temperature, all metalloid particles are solid. They can combine with other metals to make alloys. Under the proper circumstances, several metalloids, like silicon and germanium, can function as electrical conductors; for this reason, they are referred to as semiconductors. For instance, silicon has a glossy appearance but is neither malleable nor ductile (it is brittle - a characteristic of some nonmetals). Compared to metals, it is a far worse conductor of heat and electricity. Metalloids typically have non-metallic chemical properties but metallic physical qualities.
Metals and Non metals
Difference between atom and molecule
Difference between elements and compounds
Water cycle process