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White Revolution: History, Objectives, Different phases, Significance, Drawbacks, Practice Problems, and FAQs

White Revolution: History, Objectives, Different phases, Significance, Drawbacks, Practice Problems, and FAQs

In our childhood days, our mother used to force us to drink milk. Some of you may like milk and some may not like it. But we all like various milk products like ice cream, cheese, paneer, curd etc. Milk is an essential part of a healthy diet. It contains various important minerals, vitamins, fats, proteins etc. Hence it is considered as a nutrient-rich liquid food.

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Fig: Milk

Do you know, in India, some states have their own milk brand? For example, Amul is a milk brand of Gujarat, similarly, Aavin is a brand of Tamil Nadu, Milma is a milk brand of Kerala, Sanchi is a milk brand of Madhya Pradesh and Nandhini is a milk brand of Karnataka.

But do you know how milk became so popular in India? How did India become the largest milk producer? This occurred because of the White revolution in India. The revolution associated with a sharp increase in the milk production in the country is called the White Revolution. White revolution period intended to make India a self-dependent nation in the milk production. This revolution has increased the production of milk in rural and urban areas of India. Let’s understand the White revolution in depth in this article.

Table of contents

  • White revolution
  • History of the White revolution
  • Objectives of the White revolution
  • Different phases of the White revolution
  • Significance of the White revolution
  • Drawbacks of the White revolution
  • Practice Problems
  • FAQs

White revolution

The revolution associated with a sharp increase in milk production in the country is called the White Revolution. The initiative known as ‘White Revolution’ was started as Operation Flood. By removing the intermediaries, it established a national milk grid that connected farmers all across India to consumers in more than 700 towns and cities, decreasing seasonal and regional price differences while ensuring that farmers receive a significant portion of the profits.

In this the local milk producers' cooperative societies, which purchase milk, offer inputs and services, and make modern management and technology available to all the members. The White Revolution in India, also known as Operation Flood, is the revolution connected to a significant increase in milk production in the nation. India was supposed to become a self-dependent nation in milk-production during the White Revolution. The largest milk producer in the world now is India, and Dr. Verghese Kurien is credited with starting the White Revolution here.

Fig: Dr. Verghese Kurien

History of the White revolution

The Intensive Cattle Development Programme, which offered cattle owners a package of enhanced animal husbandry in order to support the White revolution in the nation, was established in India in the years 1964 – 1965. Later, the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) launched a brand-new initiative called the ‘operation flood’ to quicken the country's White revolution on 13th January 1970. The goal of Operation Flood, which began in 1970, was to establish a national milk grid. The National Dairy Development Board of India (NDDB) was the organisation that started the rural development initiative. Operation flood was the world's largest dairy development program.

Features of the white revolution

The white revolution was initiated with the following two features:

  • Using advanced methods for animal husbandry.
  • Altering the composition of feed ingredients in different proportions.

Objectives of the White revolution in India

The operation flood was founded on the cooperatives of local milk farmers. They obtained milk and offered the services while making the most use of modern technology and management. The objectives of the white revolution are as follows:

  • Increasing productivity to make a flood of milk.
  • Increasing the income of the rural populations.
  • Deliver milk to customers at reasonable pricing.
  • Reduce poverty among participating farmers while ensuring a steady supply of milk in return.

Contributions of Dr.Verghese Kurien

Dr. Verghese Kurien, the chairman of the National Dairy Development Board, was in charge when Operation Flood began. Dr. Kurien pushed the cooperatives to support the revolution with his exemplary management abilities. As a result, he is credited with being the White Revolution's architect and the father of the White revolution. The movement that turned this Operation Flood in India into the White Revolution was supported by a number of large corporations. Anand Milk Union Limited (AMUL), a Gujarat-based corporation, was the major initiative behind Operation Flood Program's accomplishments.

Different phases of the white revolution

The operation flood or the White revolution was launched in three phases. These phases are discussed below:

Phase I

Phase I began in 1970 and continued for ten years, or continued until 1980. The sale of butter oil and skim milk powder that the European Union contributed through the World Food Program helped to pay for this phase. In the first stage of Phase I, specific goals were established for the successful implementation of the program. One of these objectives was to enhance the milk marketing strategy in major cities.

Phase II

Phase II lasted from 1981 to 1985, a period of five years. This phase saw a rise in milk sheds from 18 to 136, an increase in milk outlets to roughly 290 metropolitan markets, and the establishment of a self-sustaining system with 4,250,000 milk producers divided among 43,000 local cooperatives. Due to the cooperative's direct selling of milk, domestic milk powder output increased from 22,000 tonnes in 1980 to 140,000 tonnes by 1989, and the sale of milk likewise increased by several million litres per day. The dairies established as part of Operation Flood were the only cause of all the improvements in production.

Phase III

Phase III also lasted for nearly ten years, from 1985 to 1996. The program was given a finishing touch during this phase, which allowed the dairy cooperatives to grow. Additionally, it improved the infrastructure needed to buy and sell more milk. Over 3.5 crore dairy farmer members were connected via 73,930 dairy cooperatives that had been established at the conclusion of the White Revolution or Operation Flood. There are currently several hundred highly effective Cooperatives operating in India as a result of the White Revolution. So many Indian communities are now prosperous because of this revolution.

Significance of the white revolution

Some of the significances of the white revolution are listed below:

  • In India, the White Revolution contributed to a decline in business fraud.
  • It made India the world's top producer of milk and milk products.
  • It also contributed to the eradication of poverty.
  • Operation Flood gave the dairy producers ownership over the resource they had produced.
  • It aided the dairy producers in taking control of their own growth.
  • A ‘National Milk Grid’ was established to link milk producers with customers in more than 700 cities and villages across the nation.
  • The revolution simultaneously increased customer satisfaction and decreased regional and seasonal price variances.
  • It made sure that the dairy producers receive a significant portion of the price that consumers pay.
  • It raised the level of living for rural residents and advanced the rural economy.
  • White revolution resulted in a more organised dairy sector in metropolitan cities like Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Delhi through marketing.

Drawbacks of the White Revolution

The White revolution was associated with drawbacks also. The main drawbacks of white revolution are listed below:

  • The White revolution gave more importance to exotic breeds of cattle because imported breeds produce more milk than Indian breeds. Examples of exotic breed include Jersey.

Fig: Jersey

  • White revolution has resulted in the decimation of Indian breeds or indigenous breeds as the farmers gave importance to the high milk yielding exotic milch breeds. Examples of the indigenous breed include Vechur cow.
  • Exotic breeds gave higher yields, but they require more feed also. Body size of the exotic breed is huge and their milk and meat production is also high, accordingly they require more feed. Examples of exotic breed include Ayrshire.

Fig: Ayrshire

  • Most of the exotic breeds are not suitable for the Indian climatic conditions. Exotic breeds are mostly imported from the coldest countries. So they cannot survive in the harsh conditions of most parts of India. Examples of the exotic breed include Red Dane.

Fig: Red Dane

Practice Problems

  1. The White revolution is related to an increase in production of ________________.
  1. fertiliser
  2. milk
  3. food grains
  4. eggs

Solution: Operation Flood launched on 13 th January 1970 later called as White revolution. Dr. Verghese Kurien is the father of White revolution. Operation flood was the world's largest dairy development program and in India it was a project of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB). The revolution associated with a sharp increase in milk production in the country is called the White Revolution. White revolution period intended to make India a self-dependent nation in milk production. Hence, the correct option is b.

2. Determine the statement which is not an objective of the Milk revolution in India?

  1. Increased milk production
  2. Supplement urban income
  3. Employment and improved income for dairy farmers
  4. Fair milk prices for consumers

Solution: The initiative that triggered the White Revolution was called Operation Flood. India's milk output has significantly increased as a result of this revolution. The goal of the White Revolution was to make India a self-sufficient producer of milk. India is currently the largest milk producer in the world. Dr. Verghese Kurien is credited with starting the White Revolution in India. The major objectives of the white revolution in India involves the following:

  • Increasing productivity to make a flood of milk.
  • Increasing the income of the rural populations.
  • Deliver milk to customers at reasonable pricing.
  • Reduce poverty among participating farmers while ensuring a steady supply of milk in return. Hence, the correct option is b.

3. What effects did the White Revolution bring in India?

Answer: India's White Revolution was effective in making it from a milk-short country to one that leads the world in milk production. It contributed to dairy farming becoming India's largest self-sustaining sector and the largest source of rural employment.

4. Why is Verghese Kurien referred to as ‘the father of the white revolution’?

Answer: The man referred to as the ‘Father of the White Revolution’ is Mr. Verghese Kurien. He was responsible for the introduction of the renowned corporation ‘Amul’ or Anand Milk Union Limited. Dr. Verghese Kurien, the chairman of the National Dairy Development Board, was in charge when Operation Flood began. Later it was called the White revolution.

FAQs

  1. In which state of India did the White revolution occur?

Answer: The white revolution was launched in Anand, Gujarat in 1970.

  1. India is the largest producer of which products?

Answer: India is the largest producer of jute, milk, and pulses in the world.

  1. Why is National milk day celebrated in India?

Answer: Nation marks the birth anniversary of ' the Milkman' Verghese Kurien as the National milk day. Dr. Verghese Kurien is the 'Father of White Revolution in India. He was born on 26 November 1921 and hence we celebrate the National milk day on November 26.

  1. Why is milk considered an essential part of a balanced diet?

Answer: Milk is a complex fluid secreted by the mammals to nourish their young ones. It contains about 85% water and possesses proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. Protein is about 3.2% of the milk and exists in a colloid state. It consists of casein, lactalbumin and lactoglobulin mainly. Fat is about 4.1% of the milk. It consists of cholesterol, phospholipids, carotene etc. Carbohydrates constitute about 4.5% of the milk and remain in a dissolved state. The main sugar in milk is lactose. Vitamins in milk consist of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, riboflavin and nicotinic acid. Minerals in milk consist of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, bicarbonates, chlorides, sodium and potassium. Hence it is considered an essential part of a balanced diet.

Fig: Composition of milk

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