•  
agra,ahmedabad,ajmer,akola,aligarh,ambala,amravati,amritsar,aurangabad,ayodhya,bangalore,bareilly,bathinda,bhagalpur,bhilai,bhiwani,bhopal,bhubaneswar,bikaner,bilaspur,bokaro,chandigarh,chennai,coimbatore,cuttack,dehradun,delhi ncr,dhanbad,dibrugarh,durgapur,faridabad,ferozpur,gandhinagar,gaya,ghaziabad,goa,gorakhpur,greater noida,gurugram,guwahati,gwalior,haldwani,haridwar,hisar,hyderabad,indore,jabalpur,jaipur,jalandhar,jammu,jamshedpur,jhansi,jodhpur,jorhat,kaithal,kanpur,karimnagar,karnal,kashipur,khammam,kharagpur,kochi,kolhapur,kolkata,kota,kottayam,kozhikode,kurnool,kurukshetra,latur,lucknow,ludhiana,madurai,mangaluru,mathura,meerut,moradabad,mumbai,muzaffarpur,mysore,nagpur,nanded,narnaul,nashik,nellore,noida,palwal,panchkula,panipat,pathankot,patiala,patna,prayagraj,puducherry,pune,raipur,rajahmundry,ranchi,rewa,rewari,rohtak,rudrapur,saharanpur,salem,secunderabad,silchar,siliguri,sirsa,solapur,sri-ganganagar,srinagar,surat,thrissur,tinsukia,tiruchirapalli,tirupati,trivandrum,udaipur,udhampur,ujjain,vadodara,vapi,varanasi,vellore,vijayawada,visakhapatnam,warangal,yamuna-nagar

Plant Breeding: Conventional Breeding, its Limitations, Steps of Plant Breeding and Parbhani Kranti

Plant Breeding: Conventional Breeding, its Limitations, Steps of Plant Breeding and Parbhani Kranti

One of the essential components required for the living being is food. You know that this food is coming from plants. That’s why plants are very important for us. Plants are an important part of agriculture. It is an art or science of growing crops and raising livestock.

Do you know, India is known as the second largest producer of food. It is the largest producer of wheat, rice, pulses and sugarcane. In India, agriculture has been practised since thousands of years. Isn’t this interesting?

You know, nowadays, the wheat we are having is an improved variety. The wild variety of wheat is cultivated over thousands of years to obtain an improved quality of wheat. Let’s understand more about this process of developing new varieties of plants. 

india is the largest producer food

Table of Contents

Plant Breeding

Plant breeding is a purposeful process in which plant species are manipulated to create a desired variety of plant. This desired variety of plant is better suited for cultivation, disease resistance and gives a better yield. There are various methods available to create improved varieties of plants. It can be the conventional methods or modern methods. 

For example, the type of wheat we eat today is an improved version of wild type wheat. The qualities included in the improved variety of wheat are more yield, pest resistance, disease resistance and tolerance to environmental stresses.

qualities of improved variety of wheat

Conventional Breeding

Conventional breeding is the traditional method that was done in older days to grow crops. The traditional farming methods included manual ploughing

Method of Conventional Breeding 

In this method, oxen were used to loosen the soil before sowing seeds. Most of the farming work was done by farmers themselves. After the soil was ploughed, labourers would sow seeds. In those days, cattle dung and natural manure were used as fertilisers. They enrich the soil with nutrients. After the crops are grown, labourers themselves harvest the crops. In order to obtain a disease or pest resistant plant that can give better yield, screening should be done. 

After screening the different plants that are resistant to disease are selected as parent plants. These parent plants are hybridised which results in a plant with desired traits. From the progeny, hybrids are selected that are disease resistant and high yielding. This is considered as the superior breed. 

These hybrids are self-pollinated for several generations until they become pure breeds. The characters in pure breeds will not segregate in the progeny. The evaluation of pure breeds is done by growing these plants in the research fields. The performance of pure breeds is recorded under different conditions, like ideal fertiliser application, irrigation, and other crop management practices before commercialisation.

conventional breeding

Limitations of Conventional Breeding

There are some limitations to conventional breeding methods that are enlisted below:

  • Conventional breeding is a time-consuming and tedious method. 
  • The probability of obtaining a hybrid crop that contains desirable traits is low.

Steps of Plant Breeding

Following steps are performed to breed a new variety in plant breeding:

  • Collection of variability.
  • Evaluation and selection of parents.
  • Cross hybridisation among the selected parents.
  • Selection and testing of superior recombinants.
  • Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars.

Collection of Variability

The first step in plant breeding to develop a genetic variability is to collect, evaluate and preserve different wild varieties, species and relatives of a crop. For plant breeding, genetic variability is important. It is available in the wild varieties of many crops. The information of genetic variability is stored in the genes. The genetic variability of an individual is termed as Germplasm. The collection of all genes in a crop is termed as Germplasm collection. This collection includes all the diverse alleles. 

For example, the wild variety along with the various types of wheat crops, together comprise the germplasm collection.

diffrent varieties of a wheat plant

Evaluation and Selection of Parents

From the different varieties of wheat crops, two varieties are selected that have the desirable traits. For example, from a collection of wheat varieties, two varieties are selected that have high fibre content and resistance to mildew disease. These selected plants are grown in fields (multiplied) to obtain progeny.

 Pure lines are created by self fertilisation upto many generations, wherever it is required and possible.

selected varities of wheat with desirable traits

Cross hybridisation among the selected parents

The selected parents are cross-hybridised to produce progeny. Some of these offspring have genetic combinations of the desired characters whereas, some have parental type genetic structure. The cross hybridisation occurs when the pollen from male plant with high fibre content is transferred to the female plant which is resistant to mildew. This is termed as cross pollination.

selected varieties of wheat plant

Selection and Testing of Superior Recombinants

The offspring having desirable traits of both parents are selected. This is a very essential and tedious process. These plants are self-pollinated for many generations until it becomes a pure line. In pure line, the characters do not segregate in the offspring.

progency with different characters

Testing, Release and Commercialisation of New Cultivars

The next step is to evaluate the superior recombinants of a crop. The evaluation is done in research fields. These crops are grown in different conditions to test their performance under ideal irrigation, fertiliser and other crop management practices. Then, the crop is tested in the farmer’s field for at least three growing seasons in different locations of different climates. The newly produced variety and the reference variety are compared in terms of quality and cost. After passing all the tests, the newly produced variety is approved and released in the market for commercial use.

different crop managment practices

Parbhani kranti 

Hybridisation improves both the quality and yield of a crop. Mutation breeding along with hybridisation yields much better varieties. Examples include Parbhani kranti. It is a hybrid variety of lady's finger or okra that has been produced by the mutational breeding and from the back cross of two flowering plants of Abelmoschus manihot and Abelmoschus esculentus

The common disease that occurs in okra plants is yellow vein mosaic disease. It is caused by a virus. It is a yellow vein mosaic resistant variety of okra released in 1985 by MAU (Marathwada Agricultural University). Fruits are dark green in colour, smooth, and slender. 

hybridisation of selected parent plant

Practice Problems of Plant Breeding

Question 1. The collection of different varieties of wheat plant is known as _____________.

a. germplasm collection
b. pure line
c. selection of superior breed
d. cross hybridisation

Solution: Germplasm collection is described as the collection of all the genes of a crop. The collection of different varieties of wheat to collect and preserve all the genetic information is known as germplasm. Hence, the correct option is a.

Question 2. To obtain a pure line of a crop, which process needs to be done?

a. Cross pollination
b. Self pollination
c. Cross hybridisation
d. Mutation breeding

Solution: To obtain a pure line of a crop, self pollination of selected superior breeds needs to be done for many generations. This is done to avoid segregation of characters in the offspring. Hence, the correct option is b.

FAQs of Plant Breeding

Question 1. What is the concept of plant breeding?

Answer: The purposeful process in which plant species are manipulated to create a desired variety of plant is termed as plant breeding. This desired variety of plant has many improved qualities like it is better suited for cultivation, disease resistance and gives a better yield. 

Question 2. Describe the first step of plant breeding.

Answer: The first step in plant breeding to develop a new genetic variety is the collection of variability. The wild variety of many crops are collected and preserved because they contain all the genetic information about that crop.

Question 3. What is the basic principle of any plant breeding programme?

Answer: The basic principle of any plant breeding programme is genetic variability. The source of genetic variability is the wild relatives of a crop. They contain all the genetic information in their genes. These varieties are collected and preserved to obtain the plant with desirable traits.

Question 4. Which step is crucial in plant breeding?

Answer: Selection of a superior recombinant is a crucial step in the plant breeding process. The offspring having superior traits to both the parents are screened and selected properly. This is because these are responsible further to obtain the desired progeny.

Question 5. What is conventional breeding of plants?

Answer: Conventional breeding of plants is the traditional method that was done in older days to grow crops. These methods included manual ploughing. In this method, oxen were used to loosen the soil before sowing seeds. After the soil was ploughed, labourers would sow seeds. Cattle dung and natural manure were used as fertilisers that enrich the soil with nutrients. After the crops are grown, labourers themselves harvest the crops. In order to obtain a disease or pest resistant plant that can give better yield, screening has been done. 

Question 6. What is a superior recombinant?

Answer: Superior recombinant is a plant among all the progeny that have desirable traits. For example, in wheat crops, a superior recombinant is a plant that has a high fibre content and is resistant to mildew disease.


 

NEET Related Links

NEET Exam 2024

NEET 2024 Exam Dates

NEET 2024 Exam pattern

NEET 2024 Syllabus

NEET 2024 Eligibility Criteria

NEET 2024 Application

NEET UG Counselling

NEET FAQ

NEET UG Result

NEET 2024 Cut Off

Neet 2023 Toppers List Names & Rank

Neet Result 2023 Toppers list rank cut off

Neet Answer key Live Download PDF

Neet 2023 State Toppers List

JEE MAIN Related Links

JEE Main 2024

JEE Main Rank Predictor 2024

JEE Main College Predictor 2024

JEE Main 2024 Exam Dates

JEE Main 2024 Exam pattern

JEE Main 2024 Application

JEE Main 2024 Eligibility Criteria

JEE Main 2024 Syllabus

JEE Main 2024 Physics Syllabus

JEE Main 2024 Maths Syllabus

JEE Main 2024 Chemistry Syllabus

JEE Main 2024 Admit Card

JEE Main 2024 Counselling

JEE Main marks vs rank vs percentile

JEE Advanced Result 2023 live topper list

JEE Exam Preparation - How to calculate your rank jee

JEE Maths Syllabus - Important topics and weightage

JEE Advanced Related Links

JEE Advanced 2024 Exam Dates

JEE Advanced 2024 Application

JEE Advanced 2024 Eligibility Criteria

JEE Advanced 2024 Syllabus

JEE Advanced 2024 Maths Syllabus

JEE Advanced 2024 Physics Syllabus

JEE Advanced 2024 Chemistry Syllabus

JEE Advanced Exam Result

JEE Advanced Exam Dates

JEE Advanced Registration Dates

CUET Related Links

CUET 2024 Eligibility Criteria

CUET 2024 Admit Card

CUET 2024 Exam Pattern

CUET 2024 FAQs

CUET 2024 Counselling

CUET 2024 Syllabus

CUET 2024 Result

CUET 2024 Answer Key

CUET 2024 Preparation

CUET CUTOFF

CUET 2024 Application Form

Talk to Our Expert Request Call Back
Resend OTP Timer =
By submitting up, I agree to receive all the Whatsapp communication on my registered number and Aakash terms and conditions and privacy policy