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Difference Between Parallel And Reticulate Venation

Difference Between Parallel And Reticulate Venation

Veins are circulatory tissues that emerge from the stem to the tip of the leaves. They consist of the xylem and phloem, which are surrounded by parenchyma and sclerenchyma. Venation refers to the arrangement or pattern of leaves in a leaflet. Parallel and Reticulate venation are two types of venation in plants that helps to differentiate and identify the plants based on their characteristics.

Table of Contents:

  • What is Parallel Venation?
    • Pinnate Parallel Venation 
    • Palmate Parallel Venation
  • What is Reticulate Venation?
    • Pinnate Reticulate Venation
    • Palmate Reticulate Venation
  • Difference between Parallel and Reticulate venation
  • Practice Problems
  • Frequently Asked Questions

What is Parallel Venation?

Parallel venation refers to the arrangement of veins in parallel. They grow perpendicularly from the bottom to the end of the leaflet. It is mostly found in monocot leaves. The mid veins distinguish the parallel venation. Parallel venation is classified into two types. They are pinnate parallel venation and palmate parallel venation. 

Pinnate Parallel Venation 

Pinnate parallel venation refers to the parallel veins emerging from the midvein in the centre of the leaf lamina to the apex of the leaflet. Here, the veins grow perpendicular to the midvein to the end and parallel to each other. This venation is also known as unicostate parallel venation. It is evidently found in the leaf structure of bananas.

Palmate Parallel Venation

Palmate parallel venation refers to the prominent veins that run parallel to each other. This type of venation is also known as multicostate parallel venation. There are two types of palmate parallel venation. They are convergent parallel venations that emerge from the midvein, grow parallel to the midvein, and finally, join at the apex of the leaf, as in grass; divergent parallel venation where the leaf is divided into lobes and the veins grow independently through each lobe, as in palmyra palm.

What is Reticulate Venation?

Reticulate venation refers to the arrangement of veins in the form of a network. It distinguishably occurs in dicot leaves. The central vein, that is, the middle vein of the leaf, travels through the centre of the leaf in a reticulate venation arrangement. All the branches of the middle vein give out secondary veins that travel to the edge of the leaf. A few of these secondary veins form a structure called hydathodes at their termination. Hydathodes are characterised secretory organs that aid in guttation.

As parallel venation, reticulate venation is also classified into two types. They are Pinnate reticulate venation and Palmate reticulate venation.

Pinnate Reticulate Venation

Pinnate reticulate venation refers to the arrangement of all other veins except one midvein in a mesh-like structure to form a network. It is also known as unicostate reticulate venation. It is extensively found in the leaves of Mangifera.

Palmate Reticulate Venation

Palmate reticulate venation refers to the arrangement of several midribs and other veins to form a reticular network. It is also known as multicostate parallel venation. There are two types of Palmate reticulate venation. They are convergent reticulate venation in which the vein emerges from the midvein and finally joins at the tip of the leaf; divergent reticulate venation in which the middle veins pass through each section of the leaf.

Difference between Parallel and Reticulate venation

Parallel Venation

Reticulate Venation

Veins are arranged parallel to one another

Veins are arranged in a web of networks.

It is predominantly found in Monocots

It is predominantly found in dicots

Veins are in parallel venation

Veins are connected to form a network

It is classified as Pinnate parallel venation and Palmate parallel venation

It is classified as Pinnate reticulate venation and Palmate reticulate venation

Bamboo, wheat, banana, maize and grass are examples of leaves that have parallel venation.

Rose, fiscus, hibiscus and mango are examples of leaves that have reticulate venation.

Practice Problems

Q1. Which of the following has reticulate venation?

A. Mango
B. Banana
C. Bamboo
D. Grass

Answer: A. Mango

Explanation: Bamboo, banana and grass are examples of leaves that have parallel venation. Mango has reticulate venation.

Q2. In Pinnate parallel venation, the veins grow ________ to the midvein.

A. Parallel
B. Perpendicular
C. Straight
D. Opposite

Answer: B. Perpendicular

Explanation: Pinnate parallel venation refers to the parallel veins emerging from the midvein in the centre of the leaf lamina to the apex of the leaflet. Here, the veins grow perpendicular to the midvein to the end and parallel to each other.

Q3. Palmyra palm belongs to __________ venation.

A. Pinnate parallel venation
B. Palmate parallel venation
C. Pinnate reticulate venation
D. Palmate reticulate venation

Answer: B. Palmate parallel venation

Explanation: In Palmate divergent parallel venation, the leaf is divided into lobes, and the veins grow independently through each lobe, as in the Palmyra palm.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is leaf venation?
Answer: Leaf venation refers to the arrangement of veins in the leaf blade. It plays an important role in distinguishing and identifying the type of plant.

Q2. Why are the rings formed in the tree trunk?
Answer: The rings are known as annual rings and formed as the result of secondary growth. The age of the tree can be determined by counting the rings.

Q3. What are two types of root systems?
Answer: The two types of root systems are Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous root systems.

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