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Enzymes - Structure, Classification, Lock and Key Mechanism, Mechanism of Enzyme Reaction, Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity & Functions, Practice Problems and FAQs

Enzymes - Structure, Classification, Lock and Key Mechanism, Mechanism of Enzyme Reaction, Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity & Functions, Practice Problems and FAQs

Have you ever thought about what happens to the food that we eat? Where does it go? How does it break into smaller pieces? How is it digested?

Did you know that the digestion of the food starts from the mouth itself! Of course, chewing helps. But there is also a chemical breakdown of food that starts in the mouth. What is the chemical responsible for this? Well, it is a type of chemical which is present in your secretion, by the name of “enzymes''. Salivary amylase, in particular, aids in the breakdown of the carbohydrates found in diet. Look at the illustration provided below. Enzymes involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are displayed below.

Our bodies contain a variety of enzymes that catalyse various processes. But what exactly are the enzymes made of? What is its structure? What role does its structure play in catalysing any reaction?

Let’s understand everything about enzymes in detail!

Table of content:

  • What areEnzymes?
  • Structure of Enzymes
  • Classification of Enzymes
  • Lock and Key Mechanism
  • Mechanism of Enzyme Reaction
  • Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity
  • Functions of Enzymes
  • Practice Problems
  • Frequently Asked Questions - FAQs

What are Enzymes?

"Biological polymers that catalyse the biochemical reactions are known as enzymes."

The majority of enzymes are catalytic proteins, which are needed to complete a variety of processes. The metabolic activities and other chemical reactions in the cell are carried out by a collection of enzymes, which are essential for life. The arrangement of amino acids is extremely precise and one-of-a-kind, involving hundreds of thousands of amino acids.

Enzymes can be present in all of the body's cells. Enzymes catalyse all the metabolic reactions taking place in the body. Enzymes are responsible for the majority of life's critical processes.

Structure of Enzymes:

The majority of enzymes are proteins, excluding ribozymes (composed of RNA). They are distinct and have a three-dimensional tertiary structure. The tertiary structure of peptide chains takes the shape of fissures or pockets after repeated folding or supercoiling. The term "active site" refers to the nooks or crannies where the substrate fits. The area of the active site where the substrate is bound is known as the substrate-binding site. A specific substrate can bind to a particular active site of an enzyme through weak interactions because the active site is substrate-specific. The structure and operation of proteins are determined by their amino acid composition. As a result, a change in amino acid sequence alters the structure of the enzyme and its active site. As a result, its function is altered.