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Uses of Dihydrogen - Introduction, Position of Hydrogen, Industrial Applications, Use as Fuel, Practice Problems, FAQs

Uses of Dihydrogen - Introduction, Position of Hydrogen, Industrial Applications, Use as Fuel, Practice Problems, FAQs

Do you know what element is most prevalent in the cosmos? You all might be surprised by the response. Actually, it's "Hydrogen." Hydrogen, which makes up more than 90% of all atoms and accounts for over 75% of the universe's mass, received its name from the Greek words hydro, which means "water," and genes, which means "creating." Hydrogen exists in the form of dihydrogen, and we mostly use dihydrogen for our laboratrical and general uses.

If you are aware of government policies then you must have heard of the National Hydrogen Mission. The finance minister included the National Hydrogen Mission (NHM) in the Union Budget for 2021–2022. NHM was tasked with developing a roadmap for the use of hydrogen as a fuel. The National Hydrogen Energy Mission seeks to promote the use of hydrogen energy to move the nation toward maximizing the potential of the renewable energy sector.

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On this page, we will study more about the practical and laboratrical use of dihydrogen!

TABLE OF CONTACT

  • Chemistry of Hydrogen
  • Position of Hydrogen in the periodic table
  • Industrial Applications of dihydrogen
  • Use of dihydrogen as fuel
  • Practice Problems
  • Frequently asked questions-FAQs

Chemistry of Hydrogen:

Hydrogen has the simplest atomic structure among all the elements around us in nature. In

the atomic form, it consists of only one proton, one electron, and zero neutrons. The electronic

configuration of H is 1s1. In the elemental form, it exists as a diatomic (H2) molecule and is known as dihydrogen.

Position of Hydrogen in the periodic table:

The first element in the periodic table is hydrogen. Due to its propensity to both gain and lose an electron, there is currently continuing discussion regarding its intended placement.

Industrial application of Dihydrogen:

Dihydrogen must be present in very large quantities for commercial synthesis.

(a) The production of ammonia: N2 and H2 are mixed in a 1:3 ratio, compressed to 200 atmospheric pressure, and then passed over a heated catalyst at 500°C. 8% of NH3 is produced. It's referred to as Haber's process.

(b) Manufacture of methyl alcohol: When CH3OH is produced, water gas that has been enhanced with H2 is compressed to 200 atmospheres and then passed across catalysts ZnO and CrO3.

(c) Manufacture of hydrogen chloride: Large quantities of H2 and Cl2 are to combine to form HCI.

H2(g)+Cl2(g)2HCl (Absorbed in water)

(d) In food processing industry by hydrogenation of oils:

Dihydrogen is primarily employed in the catalytic hydrogenation of unsaturated (liquid) oils into solid fats for the production of vegetable ghee in the food processing sector.

(e) Synthetic gasoline: Petrol replacements are created by allowing hydrogen to operate on a paste of finely ground coal in crude oil while under pressure and in the presence of a catalyst.

(f) Oxyhydrogen flame: The temperature of an oxygen-hydrogen flame is 2800 °C, whereas the temperature of an oxygen atomic hydrogen flame is 4000 °C. During melting materials with extremely high melting points, such as quartz, platinum, etc., as well as when welding, this temperature is necessary.

(g) With helium, dihydrogen is used for filling balloons employed for the atmospheric study.

(h) Dihydrogen is being used for developing a reducing atmosphere in processes like deoxidising and annealing.

(i) As fuel for the primary rocket engine of the space shuttle: Liquid hydrogen has a density of only 0.08987 gL-1, or less than one-tenth that of water. Hydrogen is a highly lightweight but massive fuel due to its low density. Since hydrogen has the highest specific enthalpy of any known fuel, it is valuable as a fuel for space missions. The space shuttle's main rocket engine is powered by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen stored in a liquid hydrogen storage tank.

(j) In the petrochemical sector: The petrochemical sector is one of hydrogen's main uses. Adding hydrogen to hydrocarbon compounds with carbon-carbon double bonds often results in the formation of compounds with carbon-carbon single bonds. For instance, using platinum or palladium as the catalyst, 1-butene can react with hydrogen to form butane.

Use of dihydrogen as fuel:

When dihydrogen burns, a significant amount of heat is released. The energy released during the combustion of different fuels, such as LPG, methane, dihydrogen, etc., can be compared using the same measurements of mole, mass, and volume.

The following table lists the energy released upon combustion of various fuels:

Substance

Energy released (kJ/g)

Hydrogen

142

Gasoline

48

Crude petroleum

43

Typical animal fat

38

Charcoal

29

Coal

29.3

Wood or dung

15

From the preceding data, it can be deduced that dihydrogen releases nearly three times as much energy as gasoline. Dihydrogen combustion will also produce fewer pollutants than gasoline. The only pollutants will be dinitrogen oxides since dinitrogen is an impurity in dihydrogen.

An alternate method for effectively using dihydrogen is hydrogen economy. The transportation and storage of energy in liquid form or as gaseous dihydrogen is the fundamental tenet of the hydrogen economy. The main benefit is that dihydrogen, rather than electric power, is used to transmit energy directly in this situation.

Practice Problems:

Q1. H2 reacts with ____________hydrocarbons to give _______________hydrocarbons.

A. saturated and unsaturated
B. unsaturated and saturated
C. cyclic and non-cyclic
D. All of the above

Answer: B

Solution: H2 reacts with unsaturated hydrocarbons to give saturated hydrocarbons.This reaction will explain this in a better way.

Q2. ___________ is the major component of rocket fuel.

A. Neon
B. Argon
C. Hydrogen
D. Nitrogen

Answer: C

Solution: Hydrogen is a highly lightweight but massive fuel due to its low density. Since hydrogen has the highest specific enthalpy of any known fuel, it is valuable as a fuel for space missions.

Q3. How can one convert vegetable oil into vegetable ghee?

A. dehydrogenation
B. oxygenation
C. nitrogenation
D. hydrogenation

Answer: D

Solution: Vegetable oil is transformed into vegetable ghee in the presence of hydrogen when nickel is used as a catalyst at a temperature of 400 K. This process of turning oil into ghee is known as hydrogenation. Here is an example of hydrogenation mentioned below.

Q4. Dihydrogen is being used in the manufacturing of _____.

A. methanol
B. carbon dioxide
C. ozone
D. nitrogen dioxide

Answer: A

Solution: One mole of carbon monoxide in a gaseous state mixes with two moles of hydrogen in a gaseous state in the presence of cobalt to create one mole of methanol in a liquid state. The production of methanol involves the usage of Dihydrogen.

Frequently asked questions-FAQs:

1. Dihydrogen is being used as an oxyhydrogen flame, Is this true?
Answer:
An oxyhydrogen flame uses dihydrogen to create a temperature of 2850 °C and an oxygen atomic hydrogen flame to create a temperature of 400 °C. The aforementioned statement is accurate. Dihydrogen is being used as an oxyhydrogen flame.

2. What is the least expensive method for making hydrogen?
Answer:
To create more hydrogen, carbon monoxide and water react. The least expensive, most effective, and popular strategy is this one. In the United States, the majority of the hydrogen produced each year is created by natural gas reforming with steam.

3. Can green hydrogen be used in automobiles?
Answer:
This "green hydrogen" is completely clean and environmentally benign if it is created through electrolysis using electricity from renewable energy sources, such as wind power. Hydrogen automobiles that use green hydrogen are undoubtedly better for the environment than those that use fossil fuels.

4. Where is dihydrogen most commonly used?
Answer:
Fuel cells may produce energy, power, and heat using hydrogen. The two industries where hydrogen is currently most widely employed are fertilizer manufacturing and petroleum refining, with the developing markets of utilities and transportation.

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