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Difference Between Parenchyma And Collenchyma Cells

Difference Between Parenchyma And Collenchyma Cells

A group of cells that perform similar functions are known as tissues. In plants, the tissues are of two types: Meristematic and Permanent tissues. The permanent tissue does not have the capability of dividing further after attaining a particular structure and function. It is further divided into Simple and complex tissues. The simple tissues can be classified into three types: parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.

Table of Contents:

  • What is Parenchyma?
    • Types of Parenchyma Cells
    • Functions of Parenchyma cells
  • What is Collenchyma?
    • Types of Collenchyma Cells
    • Functions of the Collenchyma cells
  • Differences between Parenchyma and Collenchyma cells
  • Practice Problems
  • Frequently Asked Questions

What is Parenchyma? 

Parenchyma is formed of thin-walled cells made up of cellulose and hemicellulose. It is responsible for functions like photosynthesis, secretion and storage. They are composed of living cells. This type of cell is continuous and present all over the plant, such as roots, stems, leaves and fruits. 

Parenchymatous cells have an active protoplast, and it is an isodermic and spherical structure. Thus, they experience pressure and force on all sides of the cells. The cell organelles such as Golgi Bodies, Ribosomes, and Chloroplast have plenty of supply of parenchymatous cells. They have meristematic tissues that grow without stimulus.

Types of Parenchyma Cells

  • Chlorenchyma: It is also known as photosynthesis parenchyma, which is responsible for food production for plants. It is present under the epidermis with the cortex and leaves of the trees.
  • Aerenchyma: It is aeriferous and has many intercellular spaces in its arrangement. Plants that have aerenchyma cells are responsible for the release of greenhouse gases.
  • Storage Parenchyma: It is responsible for the storage of substances like starch, protein and lipid solutions that are present in the vacuoles. They play a role as a food and water reservoir.
  • Aquiferous: Its primary role is the store water in a large vacuole present within a cellular wall. It is found in many xerophyte trees.

Functions of Parenchyma cells

  • Parenchymatous cells are responsible for tissue repair.
  • They are helpful in the process of photosynthesis and the exchange of gases.
  • They store substances like protein, fats and starch. It also stores water in plant parts like endosperm and roots.
  • They secrete various substances.
  • They provide buoyancy to the cell.

What is Collenchyma?

Collenchyma is closely packed by isodiametric cells. The cell walls are thickly layered and have a deposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. It gives structural and mechanical support to the plant. It is also composed of living cells. The nucleus is found predominantly in these cells. It has large vacuoles that help to regulate and store water.

It is specialised in carrying photosynthesis and preventing the tearing of leaves. They push the organs to help with the growth and elongation of plants. They are tubular structures and are absent in monocot plants.

Types of Collenchyma Cells

  • Angular Collenchyma cells: Their thick cellular walls have an angular location to the cells without any intercellular space.
  • Lacunar Collenchyma cells: It has intercellular space, and the thickness of the cell wall is associated with the gaps.
  • Lamellar Collenchyma cells: It has a thickness in the inner and outer tangent cell walls.

Functions of the Collenchyma cells

  • They are also responsible for photosynthesis and food production.
  • They prevent the plants from stretching and bending during storms or high winds.
  • They give mechanical support to the plant.

Differences between Parenchyma and Collenchyma cells

Parenchyma 

Collenchyma 

These cellular structures are present in delicate and soft parts of a plant.

These cellular structures are present in leaf veins, stems and young petioles.

They have living and unspecialised cells.

They have living and specialised cells.

They have a thin cellular wall.

They have thick cellular walls.

The cell wall is made up of cellulose.

The cell wall is made up of cellulose, pectin and hemicellulose.

It has intercellular space.

It has no or very little intercellular space.

It acts as a storage tissue.

It acts as a mechanical tissue.

Vacuoles are present. 

Vacuoles are absent.

The cells have a loose arrangement.

The cells of the collenchyma have a compact arrangement.

Its primary functions are the storage of food, gaseous exchange and photosynthesis.

Its primary function is to give mechanical support and elasticity to the plant.

Practice Problems

Q1. Which of the following is known as photosynthesis parenchyma?

A. Chlorenchyma
B. Aerenchyma
C. Storage parenchyma
D. None of the above

Answer: A. Chlorenchyma

Explanation: Chlorenchyma is also known as photosynthesis parenchyma, which is responsible for food production for plants. It is present under the epidermis with the cortex and leaves of the trees.

Q2. Which of the following is not correct about Collenchyma?

A. Thick cellular walls
B. Vacuoles are present
C. No intercellular space
D. None of the above

Answer: B. Vacuoles are present

Q3. Which of the following provides mechanical support to the plant?

A. Parenchyma
B. Collenchyma
C. Sclerenchyma
D. None of the above

Answer: B. Collenchyma

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is Sclerenchyma?
Answer: It is formed of dead cells with no protoplasm and a thick, lignified cell wall. It also gives mechanical support to the plant. They have two types of cells- fibres and sclereid.

Q2. What is a complex tissue?
Answer: Complex tissue has more than one type of cell which works together. They are divided into Xylem and Phloem.

Q3. What is the function of the Xylem and Phloem?
Answer: Xylem is responsible for the function of transporting water and minerals from roots to other parts of the plants. Phloem is responsible for transporting food material from leaves to various parts of the plant.

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