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Bioprocessing is crucial to manufacturing advanced biotherapies and products for the public. Bioprocess offers numerous advantages, from vaccines, cell therapies, and biofuels to food. Because of its significance and potential results, bioprocessing has become one of the major fields of biotechnology in the world.

Table of Contents

  • What is Bioprocessing?
  • Cell Treatment Bioprocessing
  • Upstream Bioprocessing
  • Downstream Bioprocessing
  • Working Principles of Bioprocessing
  • Importance of Bioprocessing
  • Practice Problems
  • Frequently Asked Questions

What is Bioprocessing?

Bioprocessing is the procedure that utilises whole living cells or their components as catalysts like enzymes, chloroplasts, bacteria and other microorganisms) to produce desired products. The developing industries and technologies aid their manufacturing industries through Bioprocessing. It includes the production of ethanol, biodiesel, therapeutic stem cells, prebiotics, probiotics, gene therapy vectors, and novel vaccines that completely rely on bioprocessing techniques. 

The United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) enforces strict guidelines on Bioprocessing. This highly controlled environment has a significant effect on manufacturing operations and the generation of products. Bioprocessing has shown effective results on plants creating nourishments, pharmaceuticals, energies, flavours, and synthetic concoctions with the help of a biocatalyst. The product development's quality and quantity depend on maintaining the ideal conditions suitable for the substrate, enzyme, and coenzymes to have a potential product. The process may also be sensitive in certain cases.

Cell Treatment Bioprocessing

Cell treatment bioprocessing is a subfield built on the foundation of cell treatment and bioprocessing, which includes pharmaceutical generation. Cell treatment bioprocessing plays a key role in establishing reliable and reproducible production processes to produce remedial cells. Economically viable bioprocess will,

  • Manufacture products that adhere to all the quality standards of pharmaceutical drugs.
  • It provides clinical and industrial measurements of restrictive cells throughout the numerous improvement stages.
  • The process and generation innovation must be adaptable and affordable compared to the last medication item.
  • Building a foundation for a firm that can be economically sustainable better leads to cell treatment bioprocessing initially. 

Upstream Bioprocessing

The transformation of raw materials into a state suitable for biological manufacturing is called Upstreaming bioprocessing. It involves collecting and purifying natural resources like recombinant protein, creating recombinant proteins and cell culture. The chief goal of upstream bioprocessing is to develop a superior-quality initial material for downstream bioprocessing.

Downstream Bioprocessing

After initial processing, each step is considered downstream processing, which includes generating a biological agent. The downstream processing involves certain steps as follows,

  • Removal of insoluble

Insoluble contaminants may be eliminated from a material sample by soaking it in a solvent. Impurities not soluble in the solvent will settle at the bottom, and the rest will dissolve. When the solvent is drained, the linked contaminants can be eliminated.

  • Product isolation

Product extraction is a chemical engineering technique to isolate a product from a mixture. The product is removed from the mixture and placed in a container using a solvent. The product was further isolated after solvent removal.

  • Purification of the product

The removal of impurities of any form is called the purification technique. Certain analytical methods are utilised for purifying the product, like chromatography, crystallisation, etc. The goal of the step is to produce a contaminant-free and purified product.

  • Polishing of the product

During the manufacturing, the polishing takes place to remove the uncertainty in the product and keep it smooth looking. It removes the blemishes and scratches the product may get during the cutting procedures. 

Working Principles of Bioprocessing

Bioprocessing starts from the selection or modification of a desirable organism which shows suitable traits for the manufacturing process. Genetic engineering is involved in inducing particular traits and optimising biochemical pathways. The selected microbe is then grown in regulated conditions for its productive growth and product formation.

During the growth phase, the microbes metabolise the provided nutrients, which generate the required compounds as byproducts. For instance, microbes can digest sugars derived from biomass into ethanol or other biofuel. Genetic engineering cells are cultivated through bioprocessing that aids in producing therapeutic antibodies or proteins like insulin. The final product is synthesised through purifying techniques to obtain high-quality, value-added products.

Importance of Bioprocessing

Bioprocessing is significant over distinct chemical procedures involving manufacturing and modifying the desired product in its purifying form. They are,

  • Cost-effective large-scale manufacturing procedures
  • Obtained personalised and tailored products
  • Production of disease-specific drugs and vaccines
  • Generating life-saving therapeutics
  • Aids yield in food and agricultural fields
  • Enhance the efficacy of products
  • Reduce waste generation
  • Helpful in manufacturing animal feed additives
  • Production of biofertilisers.

Practice Problems

Q1. Bioprocessing helps in the production of

A. Value-added products
B. Waste products
C. Solvents
D. None of the above

Answer : A. Value-added products

Bioprocessing aids in producing value-added products which benefit human beings and other life forms.

Q2. Steps in downstream processing involve

A. Removal of insoluble
B. Purification
C. Polishing
D. All of the above

Answer : D. All of the above

Downstream processing follows steps of removing insoluble, purification and polishing to generate a high-quality product.

Q3. Bioprocess helps in the production of 

A. Novel vaccines
B. Cell therapies
C. Processed food
D. All of the above

Answer : D. All of the above

Bioprocess helps to manufacture therapeutic vaccines, therapies on the cellular level, and processed food in a qualitative purified form.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. How is genetic engineering related to Bioprocessing?
Answer : These are linked in a specific format where cells are firstly altered through genetic engineering. The general aim is to increase the production of specific molecules through upstream processing. The generated products undergo downstream processing to obtain the products.

Q2. What are the two advantages of Bioprocessing? 
Answer : Bioprocessing helps in providing sustainable growth and production methods. It also provides an easy gain of complex molecules through living materials.

Q3. How is Bioprocessing different from chemical processing? 
Answer : The chemical processing does not involve living organisms. It also involves the usage of both non-renewable and renewable resources, while bioprocess involves using living organisms that are renewable and sustainable.

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