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AMH Hormone - Full Form, Significance and Its Function 

AMH Hormone - Full Form, Significance and Its Function 

Have you ever wondered how the foetus gets nutrients for growth? AMH hormone is produced by the cells in the ovaries in females and the testes in males. Its main function is to provide protein.

Table of Contents:

  • What is AMH Hormone?
  • Role of AMH
  • What Does AMH Level Indicate? 
  • Functions of Anti-Mullerian Hormone
  • AMH Test
  • MCQs
  • Frequently Asked Questions

What is AMH Hormone?

The full form of AMH Hormone is Anti-Mullerian Hormone. It is a protein hormone produced by reproductive tissues before the birth of the baby. This hormone is secreted in the testicles in males and the ovaries in females. It is produced in early pregnancy and before the delivery of a baby. The AMH hormone functions and the amount present in the body varies on age and sex of the person. It also plays a significant role in sexual differentiation in the foetus.

Role of AMH

AMH Hormone is produced in the foetus, testis and ovary. Before the birth of the baby, around the 7th week, the foetus has both Mullerian (female) and Wolffian (male) ducts that can either develop into the male or female reproductive system. 

If XY or male chromosomes exist in the foetus, the Mullerian ducts will vanish, and the testes will produce AMH Hormone. The Wolffian duct will vanish and grow into a female reproductive system if the foetus has XX or female chromosomes. Anti-Mullerian Hormone plays an important role in puberty and the development of follicles.

What Does AMH Level Indicate? 

In boys, AMH is produced by the testicles. The level of AMH hormone is high till puberty and decreases after that stage of puberty. In contrast, the level of AMH hormone in girls will be low until puberty and raises when ovaries produce them. AMH will decline steadily over the reproductive year and vanish after menopause. Thus, AMH is vital for a woman during her pregnancy. 

AMH hormone is an endocrine marker of the ovarian reserve to assess the age-related decline of the ovarian pool. It has the ability to predict the future reproductive lifespan. It highlights conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome, premature ovarian failure and granulosa cell tumours.

Functions of Anti-Mullerian Hormone

AMH plays an important role in the following ways:

  • It balances the menstrual cycle effectively.
  • It promotes the functioning of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) during egg maturation and ovulation.
  • It promotes the formation of other male reproductive organs.
  • It averts the embryogenesis process.
  • It is helpful for determining the sex hormone production.

AMH Test

An Anti-Mullerian Hormone test is used to check the functionality of the ovaries in females and whether it has the ability to produce eggs and is suitable for fertilisation. It also determines the ovarian reserve and the potential egg cells left in the ovary. It also helps to diagnose conditions such as:

  • To predict menopause and the reason for it.
  • To diagnose ovarian cancer in women.
  • To diagnose polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS),
  • To find the cause for delay or no menstruation in the girls.

AMH Levels

The following table shows the range of AMH levels in the blood:

Range

AMH Blood Level

High

Above 3.0 ng/ml

Normal

Above 1.0 ng/ml

Low normal

0.6 — 0.9 ng/ml

Low 

0.4 — 0.7 ng/ml

Very low

Less than 0.3 ng/ml

MCQs

Q1. Which of the following can be diagnosed by an AMH test?

A. Polycystic ovary syndrome
B. Fibroids
C. Pregnancy delays
D. Cancer

Answer: A. Polycystic ovary syndrome

Explanation: Anti-Mullerian Hormone test is used to check the functionality of the ovaries and diagnose polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Q2. Which of the following vanishes when the foetus has XX or female chromosomes?

A. Anti-Mullerian Hormone
B. Mullerian ducts
C. Wolffian ducts
D. Ovaries

Answer: C. Wolffian ducts.

Explanation: The Wolffian duct will vanish and grow into a female reproductive system if the foetus has XX or female chromosomes.

Q3. What is the normal range of AMH in blood?

A. 0.6 — 0.9 ng/ml
B. Above 3.0 ng/ml
C. Above 1.0 ng/ml
D. 0.4 — 0.7 ng/ml

Answer: B. Above 1.0 ng/ml

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. How to increase AMH level?
Answer: The AMH level can be increased by following a balanced diet with organic whole grains, fruits and vegetables.

Q2. What happens if the AMH level is reduced?
Answer: Irregular AMH levels in males can lead to the development of female structure, and in females, it results in delayed puberty, irregular menstruation and polycystic ovarian syndrome PCOS.

Q3. What is the normal AMH level for age 30?
Answer: The normal AMH level for persons aged 30 or above is estimated to be 2.42 to 3.0 ng/ml.

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