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Geometry symbols

Geometry symbols - Maths

The symbols that denote the properties and configurations of geometric shapes are known as geometry symbols.

Mathematics deals with two basic types of geometry-

  1. Plane geometry: - For geometric shapes like triangles, circles, and lines.
  2. Solid geometry: -For three-dimensional geometric shapes like spheres, cubes, and cuboids.

List of geometric shapes and their symbols

Symbol Symbol name Meaning Example
angle formed by two rays ∠ABC = 30º
right angle = 90º α = 90º
<| spherical angle   AOB = 30º
´ arc minute 1º = 60´ α = 60º59′
º degree 1 turn = 360º α = 60º
´´ arc second 1´ = 60´´ α = 60º59’59”

ray line that start from point A  
AB line segment the line from point A to point
| perpendicular perpendicular lines (90º angle) AC | BC
congruent to equivalence of geometric
shapes and size
|| parallel parallel lines AB || CD
Δ triangle triangle shape ΔABC ≅ΔBCD
~ similarity same shapes, not the
same size
π pi constant π = 3.1415 2654…
is the ratio between the
circumference and diameter
of a circle c = π·d = 2·π·r
|x–y| distance distance between points
x and y
| x–y | = 5
grad grads grads angle unit 360º = 400 grad
rad radians radians angle unit 360º = 2π rad
Not parallel to Non-parallel lines AB CD ( read as AB and
CD are non-parallel lines)
Quadrilateral The shape of any
/_/ ABCD
g gradians / gons grads angle unit 360º = 400g
Therefore a=b∴b=a a equals b, therefore b equals a

A student has to make sure to memorize these symbols to diversify their knowledge. These symbols come in handy in every field where mathematics is dominant.

Advantages of geometric symbols

  1. Various geometric symbols are used in engineering for defining and communicating various shapes and figures, such as
    Type of control Geometric characteristics
    Form Straightness
    Form Flatness
    Form Circularity
    Form Cylindricity
    Location Symmetry[f][g]
    Location Position
    Location Concentricity[f]
    Orientation Perpendicularity
    Profile Profile of a line
    Orientation Angularity
    Orientation Parallelism
    Profile Profile of a surface
    Run-out Circular run-out
    Run-out Total run-out
  2. Production industrialists use it to mark the degree of precision and accuracy during manufacturing machines and products.
  3. It is used by Indian Standard Organisation (ISO) to mark basic standards of products so that everyone can understand them. ISO marks are universal.
  4. They reduce the space needed for writing long descriptions. Usage of geometric symbols takes less space and is clearer to understand and read.

Disadvantages of geometric symbols

  1. People who are not aware of these symbols may find them challenging to understand.
  2. Misreading these symbols can alter manufacturing and production processes, delaying the work or producing the wrong items.
  3. Two or more symbols represent some geometric definitions. This can confuse the reader to understand what the symbol wants to convey.
  4. Forced usage of symbols can create problems while understanding descriptions of the products.
  5. Most customers prefer detailed descriptions rather than using geometric symbols that can create a mess for industrialists.
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