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States of Matter - Definition, Thermoelectric Energy, Gaseous, Thermal Interactions and Intermolecular Forces Differences

Intermolecular force is the force of repulsion or attraction between interacting molecules or atoms. It excludes electrostatic force and the force acting on covalent bonds. Intermolecular forces, according to Dutch physicist Johannes van der Waals, explain the divergence of actual gas molecules from ideal behaviour. This is why these forces are often referred to as van der Waals forces.
Dispersion Force, sometimes known as the London Force — When electrons from two nearby atoms acquire positions that impose a momentary dipole in the atoms, the atoms experience a temporary attractive force.

Dipole - Dipole force acts between molecules that have a permanent dipole. It is held by molecules that have polar covalent connections. The dipole's ends have partial charges, which are represented by the Greek symbol delta. If the polar molecules are stationary, the dipole-dipole interaction energy between them is proportional to 1/r3, and if the polar molecules are rotating, the interaction energy between them is proportional to 1/r6.r is the distance between the polar molecules.

Dipole - induced Dipole Force – This sort of force exists between a polar molecule with a permanent dipole moment and a molecule without a permanent dipole moment. By deforming the electron cloud of the electrically neutral molecule, the molecule with the permanent dipole produces a dipole. The energy of interaction between these molecules is related to 1/r6, where r is the distance between two molecules (one molecule with permanent dipole and another one with induced dipole).

Hydrogen Bonding - The attraction force that attaches the hydrogen atom of one molecule to the electronegative atom of another molecule is known as hydrogen bonding. It is also known as the hydrogen bridge. It's a pretty shaky link.

Hydrogen Bonding Requirements - Molecules must contain a very electronegative atom, such as F, Cl, Br, etc., and the electronegative atom must be tiny in size.

  • Hydrogen Bonding Forms — There are two types of hydrogen bonding: Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonding - Intermolecular hydrogen bonding occurs when hydrogen bonds between molecules of the same or distinct substances. Water and alcohol are two examples.
  • Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding - Hydrogen bonding that occurs within a molecule. The bond is created when the H atom of one group interacts with the more electronegative atom of the other group. Hydrogen bonding in an o–nitrophenol molecule, for example.

Thermoelectric Energy

Thermal energy is the energy of a material that emerges from the motion of its atoms or molecules. It is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the substance's particles. It is the cause of the constant movement of particles in matter. Thermal motion refers to the movement of particles in matter as a result of their energy. It is directly proportional to the substance's temperature.

Thermal Interactions vs. Intermolecular Forces

The state of matter is determined by the intermolecular or thermal forces that exist between the particles of matter. When molecular connections or intermolecular forces between matter particles are very weak, molecules or particles do not stick together to form a liquid or solid until thermal energy is lowered by reducing the temperature.

The Gaseous Condition

Air, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are all examples of gaseous stuff. Matter has no specific shape or volume when it is gaseous. The following are the properties of gaseous–state matter:

  • Particles in gases are relatively loosely packed.
  • They have no specific shape or volume, but they do have a definite mass.
  • Gases have the least amount of attraction between their particles.
  • They are not stiff and may be readily squeezed.
  • Particles in gases travel at fast speeds at random.
  • Gas particles move incredibly quickly.
  • They have a low density because of their loosely packed nature.
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