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Solubility - Definition, Factors affecting solubility, effect of temperature and pressure on solubility, Practice Problems and FAQ

Solubility - Definition, Factors affecting solubility, effect of temperature and pressure on solubility, Practice Problems and FAQ

What happens when you add a spoon of sugar to water?

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Does it disappear?

To the naked eye, it seems to have disappeared, but in reality, it did not.

Sugar has changed from a solid state to a dissolved state by a process called chemical dissolution. This process results in a sugar-water solution in which the sugar molecules are evenly distributed throughout the solution. This involves breaking the bonds that bind sugar molecules and forming new bonds with the solvent molecules. When the solute is added to the solvent, the solvent molecules are attracted to the solute molecules, and when the attraction is large enough, the water molecules pull the individual sugar molecules out of the bulk into a solution. In general, the solubility of a solute in a solvent depends on the amount of energy required to break and form these bonds.

We'll talk about one of the most commonly utilised solvents in our everyday lives. Acetone is a colourless, pungent-smelling chemical that is typically found in nail polish remover. Acetone is utilised in the production of nail polish remover because it breaks down nail polish and makes it easier to remove using a cotton swab or towel.

The maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a specified amount of solvent at constant temperature is called solubility. In a specified amount of solvent at constant temperature, the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved is called solubility. Solubility depends on the nature of the solute and the solvent as well as temperature and pressure.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • Solubility of Liquid in Liquid
  • Factors Affecting Solubility of Liquid in Liquid
  • Solubility of Solid in Liquid
  • Factors Affecting the Solubility of Solid in Liquid
  • Solubility of Gas in Liquid
  • Factors Affecting the Solubility of Gas in Liquid
  • Practice Problems
  • Frequently Asked Questions - FAQ

Solubility of Liquid in Liquid

Water is a universal solvent that dissolves practically all solutes with the exception of a few. In terms of quantity, solubility is the maximum concentration of the solute that dissolves in a known concentration of the solvent at a given temperature. In terms of quantity, solubility is defined as the maximum concentration of a solute that dissolves in a known concentration of a solvent at a given temperature. Based on the solute concentration dissolved in the solvent, solutes are classified as highly soluble, sparingly soluble or insoluble. Based on the solute concentration dissolved in the solvent, solutes are classified as insoluble, sparingly soluble or highly soluble.

If a concentration of 0.1 g or more of the solute can be dissolved in 100 mL of the solvent, it is said to be soluble.

If a concentration below 0.1 g of the solute is dissolved in the solvent, it is said to be sparingly soluble.

Depending on solubility, solutions are classified as saturated, unsaturated and supersaturated solutions. A saturated solution is a solution where a given amount of solute is completely dissolved in a solvent at a given temperature. At a given temperature, a solution in which the given amount of a solute is completely dissolved in a solvent is called a saturated solution.

An unsaturated solution is a solution in which more solutes can be dissolved at the same temperature. A supersaturated solution is a solution where solute starts to precipitate out after a particular concentration is dissolved at the same temperature. A solution in which the solute starts to precipitate out after a specific concentration is dissolved at the same temperature is called a supersaturated solution.

Factors Affecting Solubility of Liquid in Liquid

Temperature: Increase in temperature increases the solubility of the solute.

Pressure: The effect of pressure on the solubility of liquids is negligible.

Solubility of Solid in Liquid

Every solid does not dissolve in a given amount of liquid. For example, naphthalene and anthracene do not readily dissolve in water, whereas sugar and NaCl readily dissolve in water. On the other hand, naphthalene and anthracene readily dissolve in benzene but NaCl and sugar do not. It is generally observed that polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents and non-polar solutes dissolve in non-polar solvents. The general principle is “Like dissolves Like”.

When a solid solute is added to the solvent, some solute dissolves and its concentration increases in the solution. This process is known as dissolution.

Some solute particles in the solution collide with solid solute particles and get separated out of the solution. This process is known as crystallisation.

When some stage is reached, the two occur at the same rate. Under such conditions, the number of solute particles going into the solution will be equal to the solute particles separating out and a state of dynamic equilibrium is reached.

Dissolution is the process in which a few solute molecules dissolve and the concentration of the solute increases in the solution when a solid solute is introduced into a solvent.

Crystallisation is the process in which some solid solute particles collide with some solute particles in the solution and get separated out of the solution.

After a certain stage, both these processes happen at the same rate. At this stage, the number of solute particles separating out will be equal to the number of solute particles dissolving in the solution, and therefore, a state of dynamic equilibrium is reached.

Solute + solvent ⇌ Solution.

Factors Affecting Solubility of Solid in Liquid

Temperature:

The effect of temperature on the solubility of solids differs depending on whether the reaction is endothermic or exothermic. The effects of temperature in both scenarios can be determined usingLe Chatelier's Principle.

Depending on whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic, the effect of temperature on the solubility of solids can be determined. In both the scenarios, the effects of temperature can be determined using Le Chatelier's Principle.

  1. Consider an endothermic reaction (Hsolvation>0). Increasing the temperature results in a stress on the reactant side from the additional heat, i.e. Le Chatelier’s principle predicts that the system shifts towards the side of products in order to alleviate the stress. By shifting towards the product side, more of the solid is dissociated when equilibrium is again established, resulting in increased solubility.

Consider an endothermic reaction (Hsolvation>0). There is a stress in the reactant side on increasing the temperature due to the additional heat, i.e. the system will shift towards the side of the products to alleviate the stress, according to Le Chatelier’s principle. When equilibrium is again established by shifting towards the product side, more of the solid is dissociated, resulting in increased solubility.

  1. Consider an exothermic reaction (Hsolvation<0). Increasing the temperature results in a stress on the reactants side from the additional heat, i.e. Le Chatelier’s principle predicts that the system shifts towards the side of reactants in order to alleviate the stress. By shifting towards the reactant side, less of the solid is dissociated when equilibrium is again established, resulting in decreased solubility.

Consider an exothermic reaction (Hsolvation<0). There is a stress in the product side on increasing the temperature due to the additional heat, i.e. the system will shift towards the side of the reactants to alleviate the stress, according to Le Chatelier’s principle. When equilibrium us again established by shifting towards the reactant side, less of the solid is dissociated, resulting in decreased solubility.

Pressure: The effect of pressure on the solubility of solids is negligible.

Solubility of Gas in Liquid

Many gases dissolve in water. Oxygen dissolves only to a small extent in water. In water, many gases dissolve. But, only to a less extent will oxygen dissolve in water. It is this dissolved oxygen which sustains all aquatic life. On the other hand, HCl is highly soluble in water. The solubility of gases in liquids is greatly affected by temperature and pressure.

Factors Affecting Solubility of Gas in Liquid:

Temperature:

Le Chatelier's principle allows better conceptualisation of these trends. First, note that the process of dissolving gas in liquid is usually exothermic. As such, increasing temperatures result in stress on the product side (because heat is on the product side). In turn, Le Chatelier's principle predicts that the system shifts towards the reactant side in order to alleviate this new stress. Consequently, the equilibrium concentration of the gas particles in the gaseous phase increases, resulting in lowered solubility.

Conversely, decreasing temperatures result in stress on the reactant side (because heat is on the product side). In turn, Le Chatelier's principle predicts that the system shifts toward the product side in order to compensate for this new stress. Consequently, the equilibrium concentration of the gas particles in the gaseous phase would decrease, resulting in greater solubility.

Le Chatelier's principle allows for a more accurate understanding of these trends. To begin, keep in mind that the process of dissolving gas in liquid is typically exothermic. As a result, increasing the temperatures puts stress on the product (because heat is on the product side). In order to alleviate this new stress, Le Chatelier's principle predicts that the system will shift to the reactant side. As a result, the in the gaseous phase, the equilibrium concentration of the gas particles, lowering solubility.

Decreasing the temperature, on the other hand, causes stress on the reactant side (because heat is on the product side). In order to compensate for this new stress, Le Chatelier's principle predicts that the system will shift toward the product side. As a result, in the gaseous phase, the equilibrium concentration of gas particles decreases, resulting in greater solubility.

Pressure:

The effect of pressure on the solubility of gases in liquids can be best explained by Henry’s Law.

Henry’s law

It states that “the partial pressure of the gas in vapor phase(P) is directly proportional to the mole fraction of the gas (x) in the solution” and is expressed as

P x

P = KH x

Where, KH= Henry’s law constant

Practice problems:

Q. 1. Naphthalene is more soluble in :

a.  Benzene
b. Water
c. Ethyl alcohol
d. none of the above

Answer: (A)

Solution: Naphthalene is a non-polar compound. So, it will be more soluble in non-polar solvents. Water and ethyl alcohol are polar compounds and benzene is a non-polar compound. So, naphthalene is more soluble in benzene.

Q. 2. Which of the following compounds are soluble in water?

a. C4H9OH
b. Benzene
c. Carbon tetrachloride
d. All of these

Answer: (A)

Solution: Butanol (C4H9OH) has a hydroxyl group which is highly polar and is capable of forming hydrogen bonds with polar solvents like water. The rest, C4H9 -group is a bulky group that does not really like to be in water but is dragged along. Benzene and carbon tetrachloride are non-polar solvents which are not soluble in polar solvent water.

Q. 3. At the dynamic equilibrium stage of dissolution and crystallisation, the concentration of the solute in the solution at given temperature and pressure:

a. increases
b. decreases
c. remains constant
d. keep changing

Answer: (C)

Solution: At the dynamic equilibrium stage of dissolution and crystallisation, the number of particles of solute going into the solution will be equal to the number of particles of solute separating out. Hence, the concentration of solute in the solution remains constant.

Q. 4. Among ammonia (NH3) gas and phosphine (PH3) gas, which is more soluble in water?

a. Ammonia gas
b. Phosphine gas
c. Both are equally soluble
d. None of these

Answer: (A)

Solution: Ammonia gas is highly soluble in water compared to phosphine gas. The relatively high solubility of ammonia gas in water is due to the presence of hydrogen bonding between ammonia and water molecules. Ammonia dissolves in water to form a basic solution with the formation of ammonium hydroxide

Frequently Asked Questions - FAQ

1. Is solubility affected by pH?
Answer:
The solute's solubility can influence the pH of an aqueous solution. The solution has little solubility and precipitates out of the solution if the pH is such that no net electrical charge is carried by a given molecule.

2. Is butyric acid soluble in water?
Answer:
Butyric acid (C4H8O2) is an organic acid which has a hydroxyl group attached to one of its four carbon atoms. The hydroxyl group makes butyric acid soluble in water because the hydroxyl group allows for butyric acid to make hydrogen bonds with water.

3. Why is acetic acid used as solvent?
Answer:
Acetic acid is an important carboxylic acid with chemical formula CH3COOH also known as ethanoic acid. It has a variety of uses including as a raw material and solvent for production of other chemicals. Liquid acetic acid is a hydrophilic polar protic solvent just like water and ethyl alcohol. Just like ethyl alcohol and water, acetic acid in liquid state is a hydrophilic polar protic solvent. It does not dissolve only ionic salts and sugars, but also non-polar compounds such as oils. In addition to dissolving ionic salts and sugars, it also dissolves non-polar compounds such as oils, Acetic acid also forms azeotropes with many organic solvents such as benzene, pyridine and dioxane and is miscible with water,ethyl alcohol, acetone and carbon tetrachloride.

4. What is a solubility test?
Answer:
It is a type of test that is usually carried out to determine the ability of the compounds to dissolve in solvents, which is usually some liquid. Solubility tests help to find the polarity including the size of the unknown compounds. Solubility test is also used to determine whether compounds are acidic or basic.

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