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Important Compounds of Silver- Definition, Properties, Important Compounds, Their Properties, Their Applications, Practice problems, FAQ

Important Compounds of Silver- Definition, Properties, Important Compounds, Their Properties, Their Applications, Practice problems, FAQ

You must have seen a shiny metal like gold in jewellery shops or ornaments your mother use to wear. Have you seen its sister metal?

Silver is the sister metal of gold.

Yes, it sounds silly but similar to its sibling metal, Silver has been used as a coinage metal, jewellery, ornaments, and utensils since ancient times. Silver has been exchanged in almost every corner of the inhabited planet and has been a part of the economic and monetary systems of all major societies. Nowadays, due to the versatile nature of silver, it is used drastically in industries. Fuel cells are made from thin nano silver foil. There are n number of uses of this precious metal. Let us study a few of them and some important compounds of silver in detail.

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Table of Content:

  • What is silver?
  • Properties of silver.
  • Important Compounds of silver
  • Important properties of silver compounds
  • Applications of silver compounds
  • Practice problems
  • Frequently asked questions-FAQ

What is silver?

Silver is a chemical element with atomic number 47 having electronic configuration [Kr]4d105s1 in the periodic table and the symbol Ag (from the Latin Argentum). A transition metal that is soft, whitish, and glossy in nature. Silver is a precious metal in its own way. In the crust of the Earth, precious metals are rare to find. They are visually appealing yet chemically inactive. The metal's characteristics make it suitable for jewellery, coins, and artwork.

Properties of silver:

  • Silver is a whitish, soft metal with a gleaming finish
  • It is the most malleable and ductile metal. Ductile refers to a material that can be pulled into thin wires. Malleable refers to a material that can be hammered into thin sheets.
  • It is the best conductor of heat and electricity of all the elements.
  • It also has a good light reflection.
  • The melting point of silver is 961.78oC at STP conditions.
  • The boiling point of silver is 2162oC at STP conditions
  • Density of silver metal is 10.5 g cm-3

Important compounds of silver:

1. Silver Nitrate:

  • The chemical compound AgNO3 stands for silver nitrate.
  • The silver cation (Ag+), as well as the nitrate anion (NO -3), forms an ionic connection.
  • This chemical dissolves easily in water and dissociates into its constituent ions due to its ionic character.
  • When contrasted to silver halides, which are utilised in photography due to their extreme sensitivity to light, AgNO3 is relatively stable while exposed to light.

Structure of silver nitrate:

  • One nitrogen nucleus is bonded by three oxygen atoms in the nitrate ion.
  • This ion's nitrogen-oxygen bonds are comparable to each other.
  • Silver nitrate has a molar mass of 169.87 g mol-1
  • The silver cation (Ag+) and nitrate ion (NO -3) are present in their chemical structure.
  • Silver ion has a net + 1 charge and nitrate ion has a net charge of - 1 because the core nitrogen atom is covalently linked to three oxygen atoms with a partial double bond character.

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Physical properties of silver nitrate:

  • Silver nitrate has an orthorhombic crystal structure.
  • Silver nitrate has melting and boiling temperatures of 482.8 K and 482.8 K respectively under STP conditions.
  • Silver nitrate has no colour and has no odour.
  • Silver nitrate dissolves easily in water.
  • At 0 °C, silver nitrate has a solubility of 122g/100mL, whereas, at 25 °C, it has a solubility of 256 g/100mL.

Chemical properties of silver nitrate:

  • This chemical entirely breaks down when heated to 440°C, yielding oxygen, nitrogen dioxide, and silver.
  • The interaction of silver nitrate with ethanol is extremely explosive.
  • The poisonous and corrosive character of AgNO3 is one of its dangers.
  • Copper nitrate is formed when the silver in this combination is removed.
    The chemical reaction that occurs is

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Application of silver nitrate:

  • Silver nitrate is used in a variety of domains, including biology, biotechnology, and healthcare.
  • This chemical has also been utilised in the treatment and eradication of undesirable warts in humans.
  • Silver nitrate can be used as an antiseptic in various healthcare institutions once mixed with water to obtain a concentration of 0.5 percent.
  • This reaction is used in analytical chemistry to identify the presence of halide anions, including iodide and chloride ions.
  • A precipitation process of silver nitrate can be used to make a variety of silver-based explosives.
  • Silver nitrate is a particularly versatile chemical because the nitrate ion could be substituted by different ligands, which can bind to silver ions.
  • The silver cation interacts with alkenes in a reversible manner, which allows the mixtures of alkenes to be separated with this chemical.
  • This molecule is used to extract halides in the field of inorganic chemistry.
  • This chemical is employed in the production of photographic films because it can generate a precipitate of silver halides when exposed to halide ions.

Risk and health consequences due to silver nitrate:

  • Silver nitrate is poisonous and reactive, and it should be handled with caution. It is employed in medical applications in very dilute solutions.
  • Low concentrations of silver nitrate on the surface or in the eyes cause a greyish-black colouring of the tissues, whereas higher concentrations could lead to injuries.
  • This will irritate and harm mucosal membranes if inhaled.
  • When someone comes into touch with Silver Nitrate, they must wash their hands thoroughly with a lot of fresh water. If prolonged exposure is suspected, then they should receive medical assistance as quickly as possible.
  • This substance should also be disposed of in accordance with all applicable local rules and regulations.
  • Cancer has been reported in certain people who are exposed to Silver Nitrate.

2. Silver Chloride:

Silver chloride has the formula AgCI and is a white crystalline chemical substance. Because silver chloride is divided up into silver and chlorine in the test tube, it quickly turns purplish, especially in a sunny environment. When sodium chloride is added to silver nitrate solution, silver chloride forms a white precipitate. Silver chloride is a well-known salt stain that is used to give glass an amber colour.

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Structure of silver chloride

  • The silver cation (Ag+) and the chloride anion form a simple ionic combination (CI-) make up silver chloride.
  • AgCI has a crystalline structure identical to sodium chloride (NaCI) in the solid-state, with each silver cation surrounded by six chloride anions in an octahedral geometry.

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Physical properties of silver chloride:

  • The white crystalline solid silver chloride has a density of 5.56 g mL-1.
  • It has a melting point of 455oC, and a boiling point of at 1547oC at STP.
  • Despite being an ionic compound, it is water-insoluble.
  • Molar mass of silver chloride comes out to be 143.32 g mol-1.

Chemical properties of silver chloride:

  • In the presence of sunshine, silver chloride undergoes a decomposition process, resulting in silver and chlorine. The following is the chemical reaction.

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  • Silver chloride forms a complex molecule called diamminesilver (I) ion and chloride ion when it combines with a base like ammonia.

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Application of silver chloride:

  • Magnesium serves as the anode while silver chloride serves as the positive electrode in the most effective water-activated battery.
  • Used in the electroplating and polishing of mirrors, as well as the production of alloys.
  • The antidote that combines with the poison to create a non-toxic chemical molecule.
  • Silver salts are utilised in medicines and photographic films.

3. Silver Oxide:

  • Silver oxide is a dark, solid chemical substance that is used to make items like batteries.
  • Two silver ions and one oxygen ion combine together to make up silver oxide, an ionic compound.
  • When silver loses one electron, it becomes Ag+, a positively charged ion. The negatively charged ion O2- is formed when oxygen gains two electrons and thus together formed silver oxide.

Properties of silver oxide:

  • When elemental silver reacts in the presence of oxygen in the air, this process occurs spontaneously. This must occur at temperatures below 195° C

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  • Silver oxide can also be made by reacting silver nitrate with the strong basic sodium hydroxide:

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Application of silver oxide:

  • The silver oxide created in this way would have minimal internal discharge, excellent thermodynamic stability, and long shelf life as a result.
  • Silver oxide is used in batteries.
  • When generating carboxylic acid from aldehydes, it is used as an oxidising agent.

Practice problem:

Q1. Silver nitrate when decomposed produces

  1. Oxygen and nitric oxide gas
  2. Oxygen and nitrogen dioxide gas
  3. Oxygen and Nitrous oxide gas
  4. Oxygen, nitric oxide and Nitrous oxide gas

Answer: B
Solution: Silver nitrate when decomposed produces silver, oxygen gas and nitrogen dioxide gas.
Below is the mentioned reaction,

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Q2. Silver extracted from copper-containing ore using

  1. Underground mining
  2. Froth flotation
  3. Hydrolytic method
  4. Electrolytic refining

Answer: D
Solution: An electrolytic refining technique is used to recover silver from copper-containing ores. When electricity is carried through the solution, pure silver gets deposited over the cathode and thus separated.

Q3.The compound responsible for tarnishing silver is

  1. Silver oxide
  2. Silver sulphide
  3. Silver chloride
  4. Silver cyanide

Answer: B
Solution: A black layer of silver sulphide (Ag2S) forms when silver interacts with hydrogen sulphide
(H2S).
Below is the mentioned reaction:

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Q4.__________ is the important ore of silver

  1. Bauxite
  2. Argentite
  3. Cinnabar
  4. Calamine

Answer: B
Solution: Argentite, the most important silver ore mineral is argentite (Ag2S, silver sulfide). Smelting or chemical leaching are two common methods for extracting silver from ore

Frequently asked questions-FAQ

Question 1. Is using silverware safe?
Solution
: The qualities of silver utensils are non-toxic. Unlike other materials that contaminate food when heated, silver-cooked food is safe due to chemical interactions.

Question 2.What is silver poisoning?
Solution:
Silver overexposure can result in greying of the skin, hair, and internal organs. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea are possible side effects.

Question 3. Is Silver or silver compounds are combustible in nature?
Solution:
Silver and the majority of soluble silver compounds are inflammable. Silver nitrate and other silver compounds, on the other hand, are oxidizers and can make combustible materials more flammable.

Question 4. Can we use silver foil for decorating sweets?
Solution:
Yes we can use thin foil of silver for decorating expensive sweets.It is hammered into very thin sheets and used in sweets since it is thought in India that metals in our bodies are beneficial to our health and well-being too.

Question 5. How are man-made or artificial clouds created?
Solution:
We can create artificial or man-made clouds using silver iodide (AgI) or solid inorganic chemical.

Related topics

Iron

Potassium dichromate

f block elements

Transition elements

Hydrogen

Important compounds of copper

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