Conductometric titration is a quantitative laboratory method for determining the concentration of a particular analyte in a mixture. Conductometric titration continuously adds a reactant to a reaction mixture and documents the resulting change in the reaction mixture's electrolytic conductivity. The conductivity of an electrolytic solution is set on by the number of free ions in the solution. The charge assigned to each of these ions.
An abrupt change in conductivity after the continual addition of the titrant indicates that the stoichiometric point has been achieved in this titration method. In the conductometric titration procedure, the change in the hydroxyl and hydrogen ions concentration is connected to an increase or reduction in electrolytic conductivity.
Conductometric titration using a standard solution of a base can be used to assess an acid's strength. Conductometric titration is particularly useful for titrating homogeneous suspensions or colored solutions, which cannot be done with conventional chemical indicators.
The conductometric titration technique works on the following principle: one ion is replaced with another during the titration process, and the difference in the ionic conductivities of these ions directly affects the overall electrolytic conductivity of the solution.
The ionic conductance values of cations and anions differ. Finally, the conductivity of an electrolytic solution is affected by the presence of a chemical reaction.
The principle behind this sort of titration is that conductivity measurement can determine the endpoint of the titration process. For example, in a neutralization reaction between an acid and a base, adding the base lowers the solution's conductivity at first. This is because the cationic component of the base would replace the H+ ions.
The concentration of ionic entities will increase after the equivalence point is achieved. As a result, the solution's conductance increases. When the conductance values are represented visually, two straight lines with opposite slopes will result. The equivalence point is where these two lines intersect.
The general procedure for conductometric titration of an acid with a base is as follows:
The acid's strength may be determined using the formula
S2 = (V1S1)/10,
S2 = acid's strength
V1 = volume of base added
S1 = strength of the base
Thus, the acid (V2) has a volume of 10 ml in this case.
The conductometric titration procedure has several advantages, which are stated below.
The following are the two significant drawbacks of this method of titration: