The publication of the CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) Class 12 Marking Scheme has been done recently. There are generally two terms in Class 12 named terms 1 and 2. The nature of the term 2 examinations would usually be situation-based, case-based, subjective, open-ended short-type questions. However, most questions which are asked in both the terms are objective-based.
In this informative article, we have organised a list of topics for Physics – Chemistry – Maths and Physics – Chemistry – Biology students. These topics would include various sets of information regarding the distribution and weightage of marks, important books for reference, how to score maximum marks in each subject, etc. So, before diving deep into them, let us talk about a few things related to the syllabuses of all the subjects, along with their significance.
|Table of contents|
|Important highlights of the exam|
|Importance of knowing the syllabus|
|CBSE Class 12 Term 2 Maths Syllabus|
|CBSE Class 12 Term 2 Physics Syllabus|
|CBSE Class 12 Term 2 Chemistry Syllabus|
|CBSE Class 12 Term 2 Biology Syllabus|
|CBSE Class 12 Term 2 English Syllabus|
|Best books for all the subjects of CBSE Class 12|
|Exam tips to secure maximum marks|
Important highlights of the exam
Before appearing for the CBSE Class 12 Term 2 examination, the students should understand the major importance and other highlights. The following are a few points:
- Understanding the marking scheme would ease off the students’ minds and clarify what to study.
- It will also help them prioritise the topics based on the level of importance or the level of difficulty, whichever with which the students feel more comfortable.
- It will enhance the scope of securing maximum marks in the examination.
Importance of knowing the syllabus
Having an overall idea of the Class 12 syllabus will have major advantages for the students who appear for the exams. Given below are the few set of the major importance of knowing the syllabus:
- It is a must for every student to know what the syllabus is because it will help them have an overall idea of the subject they are studying.
- They will be able to identify the most important and least important topics.
- Furthermore, if a chapter contains problems, understanding the syllabus will help students know what the problem is about and what it says.
- It will help them encounter learning formulas.
- It will improve their confidence level and help boost their morale.
CBSE Class 12 Term 2 Maths Syllabus
The following table provides information regarding the syllabus of CBSE Class 12 Mathematics Term 2, as well as how the marks are being distributed in each chapter and topic:
|IV||Vectors and 3-Dimensional Geometry||14|
Unit III – Calculus
- Integrals: Integration as an inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions, and by parts, Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on them. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.
- Applications of the Integrals: Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, parabolas; area of circles/ellipses (in standard form only) (the region should be clearly identifiable).
- Differential Equations: Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, solutions of homogeneous differential equations of the first order and first degree of the type: dydx = fyx. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type: dydx + py = q, where p and q are functions of x or constant
- Vectors: Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors.
- Three – dimensional Geometry: Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, the shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Distance of a point from a plane.
Unit VI – Probability
- Probability: Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability, independent events, total probability, Bayes’ theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution.
In each term, any 4 activities can be allotted. It will add up to a total of 8 activities in both terms. These activities are specified in the NCERT Laboratory Manual for each subject. The students are asked to keep the record of the same. At the end of the term, there will be an end activity to assess the students’ abilities.
The following is the weightage distribution:
- The activities are undertaken by the students in both the terms & record keeping: 3 marks
- Assessment based on the performance of activity during both term-end tests and vice versa: 2 marks
The Class 12 students should know what the important topics are. The following is the tabulation for the same:
|Chapter name||Important topics|
|Application of Integrals||
10 Most important questions
The following are the 10 most commonly asked questions in previous years’ question papers:
- Write two different vectors having the same direction.
- Find the scalar and vector components of the vector with the initial point (2, 1, 3) and terminal point (– 5, 7, 7).
- If a line makes angles 90 °, 135 °, 45 ° with the x, y and z axes respectively, find its direction cosines.
- Find the coordinates of the foot of the perpendicular drawn from the point (2, –3, 4) on the y-axis.
- Find the direction cosines of the line passing through the two points (1,– 2, 4) and (– 1, 1, – 2).
- Find the coordinates of the foot of the perpendicular drawn from the point (–2, 8, 7) on the XZ-plane.
- A card is picked at random from a pack of 52 playing cards. Given that the picked card is a queen, find the probability of this card to be a card of a spade.
- Find the equation of the plane passing through the intersection of the planes 2x + 3y – z + 1 = 0; x + y – 2z + 3 = 0 and perpendicular to the plane 3x – y – 2z – 4 = 0.
- A die marked 1, 2, 3 in red and 4, 5, 6 in green is tossed. Let A be the event “number is even” and B be the event “number is marked red”. Find whether events A and B are independent or not.
- Given that the two numbers appearing on throwing two dice are different, find the probability of the event “the sum of numbers on the dice is 10”.
CBSE Class 12 Term 2 Syllabus Physics
Let us looks at the CBSE Class 12 Physics Term 2exam:
|Unit No. and Name||Chapter Name||Marks|
|UNIT V: Electromagnetic Waves (2 periods)||Chapter 8 – Electromagnetic Waves||17|
|UNIT VI: Optics (18 periods)||Chapter 9 – Ray Optics and Optical Instruments|
|Chapter 10 – Wave Optics|
|UNIT VII: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter (7 periods)||Chapter 11 – Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter||11|
|UNIT VIII: Atoms and Nuclei (11 periods)||Chapter 12 – Atoms|
|Chapter 13 – Nuclei|
|UNIT XI: Electronic Devices (7 periods)||Chapter 14 – Semiconductor -Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits||7|
Unit V: Electromagnetic waves
Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves
- Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).
- Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) includes elementary facts about their uses.
Also See: CBSE Class 12 Term 2 Physics Syllabus
Unit VI: Optics
Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
- Ray Optics: Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, a combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism.
- Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Chapter 10: Wave Optics
- Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens principle, reflection and refraction of plane waves at a plane surface using wavefronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens principle, Interference, Young’s double-slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.
Unit VII: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
- Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.
- Experimental study of photoelectric effect Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation
Unit VIII: Atoms and Nuclei
Chapter 12: Atoms
- Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
Chapter 13: Nuclei
- Composition and size of nucleus Nuclear force Mass-energy relation, mass defect, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.
Unit IX: Electronic Devices
- Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only).
- Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell.
Syllabus for CBSE Class 12 Physics Term 2 Practical exam (16 periods)
The Physics Term 2 practical examination has been organised by schools according to the instructions of CBSE. In this, viva will be taken by both internal and external examiners. The students are asked to submit the record notebook at the term 2 examination. This practical examination includes a record of at least 4 Experiments and 3 Activities to be illustrated by the teacher.
Scheme of valuation
Time Allotted: 1 hour 30 minutes
Maximum Marks: 15
2 experiments need to be performed by the students during the exam: 8 marks
Practical record [experiments and activities]: 2 marks
Viva on experiments and activities: 5 marks
Total: 15 marks
Experiments assigned for Term 2:
- To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1u and 1v.
- To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
To find the focal length of a concave lens using a convex lens.
- To determine the angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation.
- To determine the refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
- To find the refractive index of a liquid by using a convex lens and plane mirror.
- To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias.
Activities assigned for Term 2
- To identify a diode, an LED, a resistor and a capacitor from a mixed collection of such items.
- Use a multimeter to see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED and check whether a given electronic component (e.g., diode) is in working order.
- To study the effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an LDR.
- To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.
- To observe polarisation of light using two Polaroids.
- To observe the diffraction of light due to a thin slit.
- To study the nature and size of the image formed by a (i) convex lens, (ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).
- To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.
The following topics are the most frequently asked, for the past year’s board exams:
Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves
- EM waves
- Displacement Current
- Nature of EM waves
Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
- Image formation by spherical mirrors
- Image formation by spherical lenses
- Power and combination of lenses
- Total internal reflection
- Natural phenomenon due to light (Definition and Numericals)
- Refraction through a Prism (Ray diagram, Numericals and Derivation)
Chapter 10: Wave optics
- Incoherent and coherent waves addition
- Reflection and refraction of plane waves using the Huygen principle
- Interference and Young’s double-slit experiment
- Diffraction of light
- Polarisation by scattering
- Resolving power of optical Instruments
Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
- Photoelectric effect
- de Broglie hypothesis
- Davisson and Germer experiment
- Einstein photoelectric equation
Chapter 12: Atoms
- Atomic spectra
- Electron orbits
- de-Broglie explanation of Bohr’s postulate
- Bohr Model of a Hydrogen atom
- Line spectra of a Hydrogen atom
Chapter 13: Nuclei
- Nuclear binding energy
- Radioactive decays
Chapter 14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
- Intrinsic semiconductors
- Extrinsic semiconductors
- p-n Junction diode
- p-n Junction in reverse bias and forward bias
- n-p-n and p-n-p transistor
- Junction diode as a rectifier
- Zener diode as a voltage regulator
- Transistor as an amplifier
- Logic gates
The CBSE Class 12 Physics carries the following weightage of marks under each section:
There are three sections, with a different marks distribution. They are:
- Section A – Here, each question carries 2 marks.
- Section B – Here, each question carries 3 marks.
- Section C – Here, each question carries 5 marks.
10 most important questions
- What is the ratio of the speed of gamma rays and radio waves in a vacuum?
- Name the series of hydrogen spectra lying in the ultraviolet and visible regions.
- Why is a semiconductor damaged by a strong current?
- State the condition under which a microwave oven heats up food items containing water molecules most efficiently?
- A person looking at a person wearing a shirt with a pattern comprising vertical and horizontal lines can see the vertical lines more distinctly than the horizontal ones. What is this defect due to? How is such a defect of vision corrected?
- Show on a plot the nature of variation of photoelectric current with the intensity of radiation incident on a photosensitive surface.
- A heavy nucleus X of mass number 240 and binding energy per nucleon 7.6 MeV is split into two fragments Y and Z of mass numbers 110 and 130. The binding energy of nucleons in Y and Z is 8.5 MeV per nucleon. Calculate the energy Q released per fission in MeV.
- State Huygens’s principle for constructing wavefronts.
- Derive all expressions for the fringe width in Young’s double-slit experiment.
- Draw a plot showing the variation of photoelectric current with collector plate potential for two different frequencies, v1 > v2, of incident radiation having the same intensity. In which case will the stopping potential be higher? Justify your answer.
CBSE Class 12 Term 2 Syllabus Chemistry
Let us look at the syllabus of the CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Term 2:
|S. No||Title||No. of Periods||Marks|
|4||d -and f -Block Elements||7||9|
|6||Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids||10||13|
The following tabulation provides information about the Chemistry Practical examination done at the laboratory:
|Evaluation Scheme for Examination||Marks for Term 2|
|Project Work and Viva||05|
|Class record and Viva||–|
Electrochemistry: Redox reactions, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis.
Chemical Kinetics: Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations, and half-life (only for zero and first-order reactions).
Surface Chemistry: Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, colloidal state: the distinction between true solutions, colloids, and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic, multi-molecular, and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation.
d-and f-Block Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first-row transition metals – metallic character, ionisation enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
Coordination Compounds: Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner’s theory, VBT, and CFT.
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids: Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Amines: Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Term 2 Practical: Practical exam of 15 marks will be conducted under the invigilation of external examiners appointed by the Centre Board. This would contribute to the overall practical scores for the exam.
|D and f block elements:
|Aldehydes, Ketones, and carboxylic acids:
10 Most important questions
The below-mentioned are some of the most common questions asked in past years’ question papers:
- Can absolute electrode potential of an electrode be measured?
- Define the terms specific conductance, molar conductance and equivalent conductance. Derive the relationship between molar conductance and equivalent conductance.
- In a reaction, if the concentration of reactant A is tripled, the rate of reaction becomes twenty-seven times. What is the order of the reaction?
- With the help of an example explain what is meant by pseudo first-order reaction
- What is the role of adsorption in the froth floatation process used, especially for the concentration of sulphide ores?
- What is the role of adsorption in heterogeneous catalysis?
- Why does copper not replace hydrogen from acids?
- A coordination compound Cr Cl, 4 H2 O precipitates silver chloride when treated with silver nitrate. The molar conductance of its solution corresponds to a total of two ions. Write the structural formula of the compound and name it.
- Can Gattermann-Koch reaction be considered similar to Friedel Craft’s acylation? Discuss.
- What is the structure and IUPAC name of the compound, allylamine?
CBSE Class 12 Term 2 Syllabus Biology
Let us look at the syllabus of the CBSE Class 12 Biology Term 2:
|VIII||Biology and Human Welfare: Chapter 8 and 10||14|
|IX||Biotechnology and its Applications: Chapter 11 and 12||11|
|X||Ecology and Environment: Chapter 13 and 15||10|
|Practical Term – II||15|
Unit VIII: Biology and Human Welfare
Chapter 8 – Human Health and Diseases: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.
Chapter 10 – Microbes in Human Welfare: Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.
Unit IX: Biotechnology and its Applications
Chapter 11 – Biotechnology – Principles and Processes: Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).
Chapter 12 – Biotechnology and its Application: Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.
Unit X: Ecology and Environment
Chapter 13 – Organisms and Populations: Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Chapter 15 – Biodiversity and its Conservation: Biodiversity – Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
List of Experiments
- Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
- Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organism
- Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
Study/observation of the following (Spotting)
- Common disease-causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, any fungus causing ringworm through permanent slides, models or virtual images. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
- Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
- Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
The following are the important topics of Class 12 Biology Term 2
Chapter 8 & 10 – Biology and Human Welfare:
- Life cycle of Plasmodium
- AIDS and drug abuse
- Causative agents of different diseases and their mode of transmission
- Inbreeding and outbreeding
- Microbes and their products
- Single-cell protein
Chapter 11 & 12 – Biotechnology and its Applications:
- Restriction enzymes
- Transformation processes
- Cloning vectors
- Bt crops
- Gene therapy
- RNA interference
- Genetically engineered insulin
Chapter 13 & 15 – Ecology and Environment:
- Population interactions
- Causes of biodiversity losses
- Pyramids of number, energy, and biomass
Most important questions
- State with examples of why a few pathogens are organ/tissue-specific.
- What is the role of microbes in reducing environmental degradation caused by chemicals?
- How can microbes be used to decrease the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides?
- What is Biotechnology?
- What is a bioreactor? Explain different types of bioreactors.
- Explain five areas where biotechnology has influenced human lives.
- How was insulin obtained before the advent of recombinant DNA technology?
- Define a tree line.
- What do you mean by ‘Frugivorous’?
- How can the loss of biodiversity be prevented?
CBSE Class 12 Term 2 English Syllabus
Let us look at the syllabus of the CBSE Class 12 English Term 2
|Reading Comprehension: (Two Passages)
|Creative Writing Skills:
Short Writing Tasks
Long Writing Tasks (1)
(3 + 5 Marks)
Questions based on extracts/texts to assess comprehension and appreciation, analysis, inference, extrapolation
(11 Marks for Flamingo + 7 Marks for Vistas)
- Why did the peddler sign himself as Captain von Stahle?
- Why was Edla happy to see the gift left by the peddler?
- How was Gandhi able to influence the lawyers at Champaran?
- What made Gandhiji demand 50% refund from the British landlords?
- How did the wizard help Roger Skunk?
- What consolation did people give when they saw his acid burnt face?
- What were the contents of the small brown suitcase that McLeery carried?
- Describe the tigers created by Aunt Jennifer.
- What image does Keats use to describe the beautiful bounty of the earth?
- How does Jo want the story to end?
Best books for all the subjects of CBSE Class 12
Usually, NCERT textbooks are the most widely used due to their simplicity in explaining complex concepts. However, the students should also follow other books which are mentioned below, to gain more knowledge on each subject:
|Subject||Best Books For Class 12 (excluding NCERT)|
|English||CBSE Chapter Wise/Topic Wise Question Bank, Oswaal Publications|
|Maths||Senior secondary school maths – Class 12, R S Aggarwal|
|NCERT Exemplar Mathematics|
|Mathematics Class XII (Set of 2 volumes), R D Sharma|
|Physics||Concepts of Physics, HC Verma|
|NCERT Exemplar Physics|
|Objective Physics, D.C. Pandey|
|Fundamentals of Physics, Halliday, Resnick and Walker|
|Chemistry||ABC of Chemistry, Modern Publications|
|NCERT Exemplar, Chemistry|
|Physical Chemistry, Organic Chemistry and Inorganic Chemistry, O.P. Tandon|
|Dinesh Chemistry, Dinesh|
|Biology||Elementary Biology Volume 1 & 2, Trueman|
|Objective Biology, Dinesh|
|MTG’s Objective NCERT at your fingertips, MTG|
Also See: Best Books for CBSE Class 12 term 2 Exam
CBSE Class 12 Preparation tips to secure maximum marks
The students should have a clear idea of what to do in the examination. So the below-given are some of the tricks and tips for students:
- Consistent practice is the key to success
- Giving priority to important topics would help students obtain maximum marks
- The students must be familiar with the exam pattern and practise as many sample questions as possible.
- Timely schedule on what and when to study each topic plays a vital role.
Also See: CBSE Class 12 Exam Preparation tips
To conclude, the students are educated on everything from start to finish, for every subject. Starting with understanding the syllabus and then knowing what the topics present in that, along with learning the most important concepts and the important questions which are asked in the examinations are, all these are taught in this article.
Q1. Is the board exam based on sample papers?
The sample papers are provided at least one to two months before the actual examination. They are made with the guidance of highly qualified examiners. The sample papers give an overall idea of what to expect in the main exam.
Q2. Can we use highlighters in the board exam?
Highlighting is allowed in the main examination. The students can use colour pens to highlight whatever they feel is important. Highlighting will help catch the examiner’s attention and will create a good first impression.
Q3. Is CBSE Term 2 subjective?
Compared to Term 1, the Term 2 exams will contain more subjective-type questions. So, the students are advised to prepare accordingly.
Q4. What is the difference between Term 1 and Term 2 in CBSE Class 12?
The whole examination is split into two halves to make it easier for the students to concentrate on particular topics at a particular time, eliminating too much stress and pressure. Moreover, term 1 will probably contain the first half chapters of the subject, whereas term 2 will contain the second half.
Q5. What are the important factors the students should consider to score maximum marks?
- The students should follow these tips to obtain good marks in their examinations:
- They should know how to manage time.
- Regular practice will help students get to know the concepts.
- The students should filter topics based on difficulty level and then study them, saving them a tremendous amount of time.