“Organic Chemistry is as similar as playing with molecular Jigsaw puzzles.”
Organic compounds surround every individual. In today’s technologically advanced era, almost every item is made up of organic compounds in some form or another. These chemical compounds NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry plays an essential role in the economic growth and development of the economy. Such organic compounds are majorly used in Biotechnology, Biochemistry, and Medicine. These compounds can be used in numerous secondary sectors, including agrichemicals, surface coating, beauty products, detergents, colouring agents, food, fuel, petrochemical products, pharmaceutical drugs, polymers, and rubber.
Carbon is the most used element in organic compounds. Organic compounds may be referred to as hydrocarbons (compounds made of carbon & hydrogen). In some organic compounds, hydrogen can be altered by other elements such as N, S etc. As a result, “organic chemistry NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry is the study of hydrocarbons and their derivatives.”
Students will be able to ace their exams if they study these concepts and questions!
What is Organic Chemistry?
Organic chemistry NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry mainly involves the study of carbon-containing compounds. It studies their structures, compositions, properties, reactions, and preparation. The majority of organic compounds contain carbon and hydrogen as their prime elements. Still, they may also contain various other elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, halogen, silicon, sulphur, and many more.
Organic chemistry has some of the most important branches of science that study carbon compounds, particularly hydrocarbons and their derivatives.
|Did You Know?
Carbon has a unique ability to form covalent bonds with other elements to make diverse structural mixes. Organic chemists use various organic chemistry reactions to synthesise unusual carbon-based structures and use various analytical methods to characterise them.
Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds
Catenation: Catenation NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry is a process whereby the atoms of the carbon element self-link to form chains and rings. Carbon can expand the definition of catenation to include layer formation (2-dimensional catenation) and the formation of space grids (3-dimensional catenation).
Tetravalency and small size: Carbon demonstrates tetravalency; that is, it can bond with four other atoms. Forming bonds with elements such as carbon, hydrogen, or atoms of other elements can help meet the tetravalency feature of carbon. The carbon atom must contain four electrons in its valence shell. It is assumed that in the bond formation of atoms, an energy-emission process, two electrons of carbon in the 2s orbital become unpaired, and one is reinforced to the empty orbital.
Earlier organic chemistry was limited to the study of compounds produced naturally, but with technological advancements, it expanded its study to compounds produced by humans. Plastic is one such example!
Structural Representations: Organic Compounds
Complete Structural Formula: A complete structural formula comprises atom symbols linked by short lines representing their chemical bonds. The lines represent the relationships between the two atoms. It can be one, two, or three lines indicating single, double, or triple bonds.
Condensed Structural Formula: Every carbon atom is represented individually in the condensed structural formula. Here, carbon atoms are placed to the atoms bonded to that particular carbon atom. These are written in shorthand notation, which contains more clarification than the molecular formula. The condensed structural formulas NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry are shorter in comparison to other structural formulas.
Bond-Line Structural Formula: A molecular structure representation uses lines to highlight the covalent bonds between atoms. Here the bonds between the atoms are represented circularly using lines. A single line depicts a single bond between the atoms likewise, two parallel lines for a double bond and three parallel lines for a triple bond. The position of carbon atoms is depicted with letters, or in case not mentioned, every connector is presumed to be a methyl group.
Classification of Organic Compounds
There are large numbers of organic compounds, and their non-stop increase in numbers has made it important to classify them based on their structures.
Acyclic or Open Chain Compounds: These compounds are made up of flat or branched chains. They are also known as aliphatic compounds.
Alicyclic or Closed Chain or Ring Compounds: Alicyclic (aliphatic cyclic) compounds are made up of carbon atoms arranged in a ring (homocyclic) format. Atoms other than carbon can also be found in the ring (heterocyclic).
Aromatic Compounds: The aromatic compound is a unique type of compound. Benzene and Benzenoid (other related ring compounds) are some of their examples. Aromatic compounds, like alicyclic compounds, may contain a heteroatom in the ring. These are known as heterocyclic aromatic compounds.
|Did You Know?
The concept of organic chemistry NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry was introduced nearly 200 years ago. Around the 1780s, chemists differentiated between organic compounds derived from natural sources and inorganic compounds derived from mineral sources. A renowned Swedish chemist, Berzilius, envisioned that a ‘vital force formed organic compounds.’
Nomenclature of Organic Compounds
IUPAC Rules: There are thousands of compounds in organic chemistry. Therefore to identify them correctly, systematic guidelines have been created. These guidelines are recommended by IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry). Nomenclature of Organic Compounds follows the IUPAC pattern for naming organic compounds, carbocations, etc. The IUPAC laid clear naming standards for organic compounds.
Chemical Nomenclature Types: Chemical nomenclature typically focuses on naming an apparent molecular arrangement of atoms. Several commissions are working under the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry which handles the naming of chemical substances. IUPAC’s general approach is to convey guidelines for future chemical names in a systematic manner.
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Before introducing the IUPAC nomenclature system, the names of organic compounds were decided depending on their origin or specific properties. Citric acid, for example, gets its name from its presence in citrus fruits.
Isomerism refers to the existence of the same molecular formula in two or more compounds but with different properties. These compounds are known as isomers. There are various types of isomerism.
Structural Isomerism: Structural isomerism are compounds with different atom arrangements within the molecule, i.e. they have the same molecular formula but with different atom structures. Such a type of compound is called structural isomers.
Stereoisomers: Stereoisomers are compounds with the same molecular composition and sequence of covalent bonds. But the only place where they differ is in their relative positions of atoms or groups in space. Such special types of compounds are called stereoisomers.
Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism
The shape of Carbon Compounds: Carbon is an essential element in organic chemistry. Its tetravalency feature makes it one of the fundamental elements of structural organic chemistry. “Tetrahedron” is a structure formed by four hydrogen atoms and carbon atoms.
Functional Groups: The chemical reactions in the functional group and compounds in the same group undergo similar reactions. Thus functional groups were introduced as a suitable approach for organizing this large number of organic compounds.
Homologous Series: Each succeeding element differs from the preceding one in a series of organic compounds.
Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds
Simple Crystallisation: It is one of the most impactful solids purification techniques. The process entails choosing a solvent and preparing a solution NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry
Fractional Crystallisation: It is a technique useful in purifying a single substance that has been adulterated with small amounts of impurities.
Sublimation: It is a process of cleaning a highly volatile organic solid, ranging on a scale from a few micrograms to grams. It is regarded as an effective model for purifying solids.
Simple Distillation: It is a process that works by
Begins with transforming a liquid into its vapour form.
- Transferring those vapours onto another location.
- Condensing the vapours.
- And finally, restoring the liquid.
Fractional Distillation: It separates the mixture into sections or fractions of its constituents. It works by heating the chemical compounds at different temperatures, ultimately vaporising one or more parts of the mixture.
Steam Distillation: It is a technique in which steam is used as a process component. The technique is majorly used in extracting compounds from spices.
Azeotropic Distillation: It is done by adding a volatile third component to the liquid phase that fluctuates the volatility of one of the two elements more than the other, separating the components by distillation.
The quantitative analysis NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry evaluates the chemical mixture’s size, composition, or relative proportions. It is the process of classifying how much of a given product is present in a sample.
The importance of organic chemistry today is as great as it has been since its commencement in the present world. These chemical bonds are present everywhere, whether it’s food, medications, paper, clothing, detergent, beauty products, or other necessities required to live. Understanding this chapter in detail will help students get familiar with various terminologies, classifications, properties, etc. Having a good grasp of this chapter will enable students to score high grades in their Class 11 Chemistry exam.
1. What are the most important organic compounds?
Organic compounds are mainly composed of carbon atoms covalently bonded to hydrogen, oxygen, and other elements. These compounds are formed by living things and can be found worldwide, including soils and seas and industrial or commercial products; in fact, the human body's cells are composed of organic compounds. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleotides are the four most important types of human structure and function composed of organic compounds.
2. How do I start my preparation for organic chemistry?
Organic chemistry is one of the easiest and most scoring chapters in Class 11. Students must follow these to achieve high grades in this chapter.
1. Before the first class, review the fundamentals of the chapters.
2. Organic chemistry is based on simple theories and chemical reactions. Students should understand the concepts rather than just rote-memorization.
Ask questions whenever possible to the teachers.
3. Compile the chapter along with another subject in the study timetable.
4. Try to understand the concepts behind the chemical reactions. It will ensure in-depth learning of the chapter.
3. What exactly are isomerism and isomers?
When two or more chemical compounds carry the same chemical formula but with different chemical atomic structures is called isomerism. Isomers are chemical compounds that possess the same chemical formula but with different properties and atom arrangements in the molecule. There are various types of isomerism
1. Structural Isomerism: These isomerisms have different atomic structures but the same molecular formula.
2. Stereoisomerism: These isomerisms have the same molecular formula and atomic bonds but different 3-dimensional atomic spacing.
4. What are the fundamental elements of organic chemistry?
As studied earlier, organic compound molecules are made up of distinct collections of atoms covalently bonded in a unique constitution and arrangement known as its structure.
Most organic compounds are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Amongst all these, carbon is the most used element in organic compounds. The knowledge of organic chemistry is founded on understanding the electronic structure and properties of these elements.