In Class 10 Chemistry, there is a topic named electronic configuration of iron, which is essential to identify the characteristics and properties of iron as an atom. Iron is an element present in the modern periodic table with the symbol Fe. Its atomic number is 26. It belongs to the first transition series. Iron can be seen in the 8th group of the periodic table.
The mass of one mole of iron is approximately 55 grams. Iron and oxygen are considered among the most common materials on earth due to their popularity and importance. It can be found in the inner and outer core of the earth. Furthermore, iron can be described as the 2nd most abundant element ever that existed inside the earth’s crust. The presence of iron can be seen throughout the planet.
In this informative article, let us look at the concepts of iron and its electronic configurations while having a brief understanding of all the related concepts.
|Table of contents|
|Properties of iron|
|Electronic configuration of iron|
|Characteristics of iron|
|Applications of iron|
|Difference between iron and other elements|
Properties of iron
The CBSE Class 10 Chemistry students need to know the various properties iron can possess. The following are a set of chemical properties of iron:
|Electron configuration||Ar 3d 6 4s 2|
|State at 20 ° C.||Solid|
|Boiling point||2861 ° C|
|Melting point||1536 ° C|
|Relative atomic mass||55.845|
|Density (g cm – 3)||7.8 g cm – 3at 20 ° C|
|Key isotopes||56 Fe|
|Discovered by||The ancients|
Electronic configuration of iron
The following are some of the configurations of iron electrons in a periodic table. That the Class 10 students should know:
- Concerning the periodic table, iron’s atomic number is 26. It means that the iron consists of 26 electrons surrounding the nucleus inside the atom. The presence of these 26 electrons can be seen surrounded by the nucleus in designated shells.
- The transition element during the electronic configuration of iron is, 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 6 4s 2.
- The energy levels in the orbitals 3d and 4s are the same in this configuration of electrons. It is a key thing to note. Moreover, in the 3d orbital, there are 6 electrons present in it which indicates that it contains only one lone pair of electrons, whereas the other electrons are not paired.
- The contributing factor toward the range of oxidation states is the present lone pair of electrons and the orbitals of the same energy level.
- There are two common oxidation states of iron. They are +3 and +2.
- The +2 state can be obtained from the above point by donating 4s electron pairs. On the other hand, the +3 state is obtained by donating the 3d orbitals lone pair and electron pair in the 4s orbital.
- This loan pair donation to all the orbitals helps in achieving stability.
- The oxidation state, +2 iron, is referred to as ferrous, while the oxidation state, +3 iron, is referred to as ferric.
- In the electronic configuration, every transition element consists of d orbitals. It permits the removal of electrons from their shells easily. However, it is not the same in the case of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, where the valency is 1 and 2, respectively.
- Apart from the oxidation states of +2 and +3, the iron compounds like potassium ferrate with a +6 oxidation state and compounds such as Ferroferric oxide having both +2 and +3 iron can also exist.
- The existence of Organoiron can be seen in +1, 0, -1, and sometimes even in -2 states.
Characteristics of iron
Iron can be seen as one of the most abundant elements on earth, and it consists of various characteristics. The students of CBSE Chemistry should be aware of iron’s characteristics. Given below are a few of them:
- Allotropy: There are around four known allotropes of iron present. They can be called ,, and .
- Magnetic properties: The iron’s form is ferromagnetic below its Curie point, 770 ° C. Therefore, above this temperature, its attraction towards magnets is weak.
- Low boiling and melting point: Compared to the other 3d group elements (from scandium to chromium), it has been proved that iron contains lower melting and boiling points.
- Isotopes of iron: There are four stable isotopes available for iron naturally. They are 58 Fe, 57 Fe, 56 Fe and 54 Fe.
Applications of iron
Iron has numerous applications. Every Chemistry student should be aware of them. The following are a few of them:
- A high amount of iron obtained from the mining process can be utilised in steel production industries. Steel is nothing but an alloy consisting of carbon, iron, and other elements in minute quantities. There are various types of steel available based on the composition of these elements present in the alloy. For example, carbon steel consists of iron and carbon with a composition of 0.1 to 2 %.
- Stainless steel: This steel is corrosion resistant due to the amount of 10.5 % chromium in it. In addition, stainless steel contains elements such as titanium, copper, molybdenum, and nickel. All these elements are present only in minute quantities.
- Alloy steel: The main elements present in alloy steel are carbon and iron. Other additives such as vanadium, nickel, manganese, chromium and tungsten are also included. Alloy steels are much stronger than carbon steels and are used to construct bridges.
- Cast iron: 3 to 5 % of carbon is contained in cast irons.
- Iron is an essential substance in biology, especially in biological systems. For instance, the usage of iron can be identified in haemoglobin, where it plays a vital part. It is also responsible for transporting carbon dioxide and oxygen across various living systems of our body.
- Iron is highly utilised during fabricating metal products, toy-making industries, construction, and building transportation equipment.
- An iron compound, ferric chloride, helps remove the impurities present in water bodies. Therefore, it is implemented to be used in wastewater treatment plants.
- Iron in the form of stainless surgical steel, which can also be referred to as inox steel, is used to manufacture surgical equipment.
- Another form of iron, called ferrous sulphate, a fungicide, is useful in agriculture. It helps improve the chemical quality of the soil and can destroy pests and slugs. Moreover, ferrous sulphate is also used to demolish lichens, mosses and spores of fungi.
- Another important usage of iron is that it is recyclable.
- Iron plays a vital role in manufacturing magnets with the help of its alloys and compounds.
- To produce ammonia using the Haber process, iron catalysts are highly used.
- The usage of iron can be seen in making bridges, rifle barrels, cutting tools, bicycle chains and electricity pylons, etc.
Difference between iron and other elements
Major information a Class 10 student should know about iron, and other components is the difference in no. of protons identified in the atom’s nucleus. The role of protons is to make all the elements unique. It is why they have been organized like this in the periodic table. Furthermore, the number of protons determines the atomic number of the atom.
While looking at the periodic table, one can see that the number is found on top of the element symbol. There are 26 protons present in iron; therefore, its atomic number is 26. The fact that it consists of 26 protons is what makes it iron. Technically, if more proton is added to it, which makes it 27, it is no more an iron; instead, it will be named an entirely different element. In this case, it would become cobalt, as it contains 27 protons.
On the other hand, if we take away a proton from the iron element, it will make it 25, so it will not be considered iron anymore. Hence, manganese has 25 protons in it, and then it will be referred to as manganese. So, ultimately, changing the no. of protons would produce a whole new element.
In conclusion, iron is one of the most commonly and majorly used elements in this world, so without it, it would be impossible to produce or create so many different things, as mentioned above. From this article, the CBSE Class 10 Chemistry students have learned everything related to iron and its electronic configuration.
Furthermore, they have also been taught the properties of iron, characteristics of iron uses, and applications of iron in detail while having a brief look at how iron is different from the rest of the components in the periodic table.
1. State some facts about iron?
The following are some of the facts regarding iron:
- There are about four known allotropic iron forms.
- Iron is the 6th most common element present in this universe.
- Iron can be found in the human body in the form of haemoglobin in the blood. The quantity of iron is about 4 grams.
2. What are some of the properties and uses of iron?
Iron is viewed as a greyish smooth metal capable of rusting in humid weather. Iron rusts very quickly, but it remains for a longer time than other such elements, so it is always an enigma.
90 % of the metals processed these days are iron. Iron bulk is highly useful in construction engineering as reinforced concrete and grinders, etc. Iron can be seen in steel industries and manufacturing industries, etc.
3. Is it advisable to take iron intake every day in our body?
No, taking more amounts of iron daily is not recommendable. However, adults can take up to 45 mg of iron, which would not affect their body, and it is considered a safety limit. They should avoid taking anything more than that. However, people who have iron deficiency in their bodies can follow a doctor’s prescription, in that case, this limit may be exceeded, and it will not affect their body.
4. Mention the generic properties of iron briefly?
The following table provides information regarding the brief properties of iron:
|Boiling point||5432 ° C|
|Melting point||2800 ° C|
|Oxidation states||+2, +3, +4, +6|
5. How do you remove electron configuration?
Firstly, the electronic configuration of cations can be assigned by removing electrons in the outermost p orbital. After doing so, we can then go on removing the electrons contained in the s orbital. At last, we can remove the electrons present in the d orbitals if more electrons are needed to be removed.